Are there more entrances to the Ravne tunnels?

Some months ago I made an article where I discussed the Ravne tunnels and the mine hypothesis. There we concluded that the Ravne tunnels were probably not a gold mine, definitely not natural, and that the tunnels are older than the medieval period. This article is a continuation of the previous article, after further research of the tunnels. It is important to make your own opinions, while reading this article. Previous article: Discussing the Ravne tunnels and the mine hypothesis.

The main focus of this article will be the tunnel that was discovered in 2010, but researched further in 2012. According to the archaeological report from 2012 (Source), they found out that there were a continuation of free debris behind the filling material. The volunteers started excavating the tunnel, and found a new section. One of the first volunteers that entered the new section, was Alfredo Bertan – an experienced volunteer at the Bosnian Pyramid. He made a descision to enter the tunnels alone, but the important part here is that he took a camera with him. Bertan filmed the whole section of the tunnels, and it is just breathtaking. The video is on YouTube, and I will recommend the readers to watch the whole video, so that you can have an idea of the content of this article (Video).

The tunnels you just saw are 150 meters in length (according to the report from 2012). We are going to study the report a bit. Riccardo Brett, the man responsible for writing the report, entered the tunnels most probably after Bertan. According to the report from 2012 and Bertan’s video, we have (Shorter length, if you want to read in whole, please click on the link above):

1. First 20 meters: water is present up to a depth of 20/30 centimeters. It is therefore easy to walk through. Additionally, the ceiling becomes suddenly higher. After the water channel, one is forced to crawl. As we can see on the video, there are two water sections, for an unknown reason.

2. After the first 20 meters, Bertan is forced to crawl. After about 3 meters, the tunnel splits into two parts – one to the left and one to the right. Bertan chooses the one of the right. The tunnel becomes suddenly bigger. He finds one dry wall, and two track lines, probably from a wheel barrow. They are only some meters long, and after that you have the filling material again. There were no signs of footprints. Close to the dry walls, one may find traces of smoke, from perhaps candles or oil lamps.

3. The tunnels after about 10 meters, becomes tighter and the exploring team found a monolith, according to the report. In addition, there are 8 parallel lines on the megalith. The reason is unknown.

4. After some meters, and a small water channel, the tunnels split again – right and left. Bertan chooses left. Later he finds marking of tools on the clay layers, probably from small pickaxes.

5. The tunnel continues for 15 meters, and the tunnel is sealed with the filling material. The volunteers tried to clear it a bit, but the working conditions were hard, and it was decided to abandon the tunnel.

The track lines, possibly from a wheelbarrow. Photo by Riccardo Brett.
Traces possibly from a pickax. Photo by Riccardo Brett.
Traces possibly from a candle or oil lamp. Photo by Riccardo Brett.
The ending of the tunnel – it is filled with the filling material, as almost all of the tunnels in Ravne. Photo by Riccardo Brett.

The tunnel itself looks like an ordinary Ravne tunnel. It looks a bit like the ‘’Rabbit Hole’’ tunnel that was discovered in 2014. The weird stuff is the obvious evidence that someone was here recently. It is unknown when and who entered the tunnels. Additionally, the tracks are ‘’trapped’’ between the filling materials. It should be noted that an oil lamp was found in a different section of tunnels in 2012 (I have discussed this). The reason why the tunnels are different in height, is probably because of the ventilation system, and the reason why we have so much side tunnels is because of the ventilation. These side tunnels have probably very small openings outside, yet to be discovered. Very small tunnels, are probably ventilation systems. However, tunnels with a lot of filling material are the main tunnels, where someone may walk. The tunnel that was explored by Bertan, is one of the main tunnels, in my opinion.

One of the smaller tunnels in Ravne. Possibly made because of ventilation purposes.

It is unknown why someone entered the tunnels and how. I am going to argue that they entered from another entrance. The reason why is that the entrance that was discovered in 2006, by Dr. Osmanagich, was almost filled to the brim. Furthermore, the entrance is too small for a wheel barrow to access, and there are no traces of such in the beginning of the tunnel. If we go deeper into the tunnels, at the location of the ‘’Egg megalith,’’ the tunnel split into two parts. The tunnel to the left is the tunnel where one may found Runic symbols, megalith K2 etc. Tunnel to the right was excavated later, and here we may found many water channels. If we watch Bertan’s video, and how the tunnels split into two parts, we may see that it looks very similar. For a closer look of the two tunnels at the ”Egg megalith,” please check out this video.

The tunnel to the right was filled with the filling material.
Egg megalith.

Furthermore, there has not been found any medieval artefacts in any of the tunnels close to the megaliths that has been discovered in the recent years. However, there has been found remains of a fireplace in 2009, approximately 180 meters from the entrance discovered in 2006, according to Dr. Osmanagich’s book ‘’Pyramids around the world (2011).’’ Samples of the organic material were sent for radiocarbon analysis to Sweden and Poland. The laboratory for analysis of age at University of Uppsala found that the organic sample was 3091 years old (+/-111 years). It would be interesting to see how old the traces of smoke are, that were found in the sections that were explored by volunteers in 2012. That would definitely help us understand this section of tunnels. We obviously see that the tunnels have been entered previously by other people.

In my personal opinion, the entrance to the Ravne tunnels that was discovered in 2006, is not the main entrance to the tunnels. Let us imagine how the location looked like thousands of years ago. There were no roads, and the place was surely very muddy and full of vegetation. I have no doubt that the entrance today is one of the entrances, but perhaps not the main entrance. I have previously argued that the ancients could have taken conglomerate and clay from the Ravne 2 area, to build the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun (Source). This may still be possible, of course, because the ramp of the Sun pyramid was probably used to build the pyramid easier and for stabilization purposes, and it is to going towards the location of the Ravne tunnels. I think that there are entrances to the Ravne tunnels, much closer to the Sun pyramid. In 2015, tourist Zora Novak, explored one of the possible entrances with a local person. She filmed everything (Video). At first the tunnels look similar as the entrance that was discovered in 2006. Furthermore, the brown material, looks like the filling material that have been found inside the tunnels. The tunnels may seem small for a person to enter, but we need to remember that the entrance to today’s entrance to the Ravne tunnels is also small, but later it gets bigger. The entrance is close to the Ravne tunnel entrance that was discovered in 2006.

A possible entrance to Ravne?
The Ravne tunnel in 2006. The small opening is the entrance to the tunnel. It is very similar to the tunnel that Bertan explored. Photo by Sanel Silajdzic.
The entrance to the Ravne tunnels, discovered in 2006. Photo by Amer Smailbegovic.
The entrance to the Ravne tunnels in 2016.

Additionally, there are different legends regarding underground tunnels in Visoko. Some of the legends are for instance that Queen Catherine of Bosnia escaped by the tunnels systems at Old Town, called Visoki, which is located on the top of the Sun pyramid. Other legends tell us that there is an entrance hallway to the Sun pyramid, for some called Vilindo. ‘’Vilin’’ is usually referred to spirits, while ‘’do’’ is referring to valley. This is a connection with mythology, with Paleo-Pagan or Mithraic cults. Even if no locals have any information about this place, they told that there is another entrance to Ravne, west of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun, according to the report of 2012.

The Royal town of Visoki, located on the top of the Sun pyramid.

The ones that entered the tunnels, which Bertan explored, did not enter deep in the tunnels at all, because there were not any traces in the tunnels that Bertan was coming from. My hypothesis is that the people that entered the tunnels, were probably looking for materials they could sell, for instance gold. They cleared out the filling material and went a bit deeper, but when they could not find any good materials, other than conglomerate, quartz crystal etc., they abandoned the tunnels. They filled the tunnels with the filling material, so that no one would notice that they have been there. One of the dry walls that was found in that section, looks partially destroyed (8:12 on Bertan’s video). Perhaps they removed some of the stones from the wall, to see if there was a tunnel behind this particular wall. The remains of this wall may be found at minute 7:31. It may mean that the dry walls were already there when the people entered the tunnels, and removed some of them to continue their exploration. These tunnels were probably not used as mines in ancient times, because we do not find any strong evidence of such and I have discussed this before also. The traces of pickaxes could have been made when the people tried to clear out the filling material – because it does not make any sense of why someone would mine for clay, when there is a lot of clay in the Visoko-area.

To this day, no gold has been found in the Ravne tunnels.

If we study Bertan’s video, we will see something interesting. At first the water in the water channels are totally clear, but the water at 14:25 and 18:00 is dirty – the reason is unknown. If we compare how much water there is at first, and later, we may see that it is not a lot of water at all at 14:25 and 18:00. Perhaps those who entered the tunnels cleared out some of the water, with a bucket, for easier access. If we compare other water channels in Ravne with the water channel at 14:25, we will see that the water should have been a bit higher. In the middle of the water channel at 14:25, we may see an edge. The edge on other water channels is under the water. This may strengthen the hypothesis that someone removed some of the water with a bucket. It seems like those who entered did not come far at all, if we follow the bucket-hypothesis, because the water at first is much than the water that comes later, circa at 14:25 and 18:00. Why the water channels are there in the first place, is unknown.

The edge, that probably should have been under the water.
The edge in other water channels is under water.
One of the water channels in Ravne.

Nevertheless, with all this in mind, the multiple entrance hypothesis, only makes it realistic. This is, in my opinion, not a hypothesis anymore. It is a fact, especially with all this evidence. It is only a matter of time when we will discover a second or third entrance that is going directly to the Ravne tunnels. If we are going to discover it from inside, we should follow the side tunnels, but especially the side tunnels with dry walls, in my opinion. It is logical that all entrances link to the original tunnels, because 1) it is easier to follow and 2) effective. It may seem like a labyrinth, but I think that almost all of the tunnels in Ravne have their own purposes. Nevertheless, as always, more research is needed when it comes to the Ravne tunnels, but at least we may conclude that there are more entrances to the Ravne tunnels, just waiting to be discovered. When it comes to the tunnel that was explored in 2012, there is no more information on it, and it was totally abandoned after that. It would be nice to see some excavations there in the future, only then will we come closer to solving this puzzle.

* * *

Djani Behram is a researcher of ancient places around the world, mostly in Bosnia and Herzegovina. He is also the ambassador of the Archaeological Park: Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation and has volunteered at the Bosnian pyramids for six years now. He also has good experiences with the Bosnian pyramids and archaeological sites in the region. In addition, he owns one of the biggest sites about the Bosnian pyramids, which is posting news and photographs almost every day.

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