Discussing the Ravne Tunnels and the Mine Hypothesis

Since the Ravne tunnels were discovered in 2006, by Dr. Semir Osmanagich, there has been many discussions regarding of what these tunnels were used for. Many have pointed out that there is, in fact, a human-intervention in the tunnels, for instance, the dry walls that can be found in Ravne. However, many people argue that these tunnels are only some mines that have been used before the discovery of the pyramids, for instance, in the Middle Ages. Some have pointed out that the tunnels were used by JNA (Yugoslav National Army) in more modern times. It is time to unwrap these different hypothesis, so we can have a better view of the Ravne tunnels.

The entrance to the Ravne tunnels in 2015.

To unwrap the different hypothesis, we need to understand how the tunnels are. Before the excavations in 2006, the entrance to the Ravne tunnels were almost filled to the top; it looked like a hole in a hill. People were calling this ‘’cave’’ – nothing man made with it.

Entrance to Ravne
The entrance to the Ravne tunnels in 2006. Picture by Amer Smailbegovic.

However, after the excavations started, you could clearly see that there were two types of materials. The first one was conglomerate, which are the walls of the tunnels, while the second is a more like a sandish material from the riverbeds. The second material is more ‘’softer’’ than the conglomerate. The colours are also different, the colour from the conglomerate is more like a gray colour, while the other material is more brownish. This difference can clearly be seen if you compare the materials.

Two of the main tunnels. The filling material is in the middle, while the walls, which are the conglomerate, are on the sides. Picture taken in 2011.

The brownish material is most probably the filling material that has been used by someone in the past, after someone digged out the conglomerate. Many people that think that the tunnels are natural have one common hypothesis. If we ask them, the filling-material is the conglomerate that has fallen down over the years. This hypothesis is most likely wrong, because you can clearly see two different materials in the tunnels. If the brownish material was in fact the conglomerate that had fallen over the years, then the filling material would be very different and would not have had a sandish consistency.

One of the main tunnels which is leading to the Bosnian Sun pyramid. Again you see the brownish filling material in the middle and the conglomerate on the sides. There is only some centimeters of space over the filling material. Picture taken in 2015.

In addition, there has also been found many different dry walls, which of course are man made. These dry walls are constructed differently than the conglomerate and are very important. The dry walls do not only work as walls for the tunnels, but they also block different side tunnels, which is very significant, which I will explain later in this article.

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One of the dry walls that can be found in the Ravne tunnels.

There has also been found many different megaliths in the tunnels, and they are different sizes. The investigations are showing that these megaliths are important for the energetic aspect in the tunnels, which can not be ignored. Reports are showing that people feel good after their visit to for instance the K2 megalith. I will also address the megaliths later in this article.

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Megalith K2.

Before we can start with the hypothesis, we first need to address that the tunnels in Ravne are not natural. The tunnels have geological features, for instance, the conglomerate, which are the walls of the tunnels. In addition, the filling material is also natural, but it was placed in the tunnels by some unknown civilization or culture. The dry walls are man made and some of the megaliths in Ravne have some human-intervention, by reshaping or making them from scratch. If we study some of the tunnels, then we can clearly see a circular formation. Nature does not make circular formations, especially not for many meters at once.

One of the side tunnels in Ravne. Notice the circular formation.
One of the side tunnels in Ravne. Notice the circular formation of the tunnel.

Now we have briefly looked into the Ravne tunnels and how they are and what they contain, and we can start addressing the different hypothesis regarding the tunnels. First of all, many are arguing that the Ravne tunnels are not historic at all, because in their point of view, the workers of the Archaeological Park: Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation are creating all the tunnels by digging them. This is not true. What the foundation is doing, is that they are following the filling material’s path and they are taking out this filling material and enlarging the existing tunnels by also taking out the conglomerate, which are the walls of the tunnels. They are doing this because they want people to walk normally in the tunnels without needing to crab. In addition, the volunteers and workers of the foundation are often checking for artefacts from the filling material or conglomerate either inside the tunnels or outside. Sometimes the foundation is finding tunnels without the filling materials, and this is evidence of human intervention. Furthermore, some tunnels are not touched by the foundation and are that way today like they were when they first got discovered and a good example of this is the water channels in Ravne. Nevertheless, the foundation is not creating tunnels; they are only following the filling material.

One of the water channels in Ravne. Notice the circular formation..jpg
One of the water channels in Ravne. Notice the circular formation. Picture taken by Jock Doubleday.

Like I said before, many people think that the Yugoslav Army is involved in these tunnels, most likely as a weapon storage. This is not true. There are numerous local people that have stated that these tunnels does not have any military involvement, However, there are reports that kids went into these tunnels sometimes, but they could only enter for some meters. In addition, no army would have stored their weapons in cramped tunnels, that would be dangerous and ineffective in a case of war. Someone has even suggested that the tunnels were shelters for the people who lived in the area either in the second world war or the war in the 1990s. Again, there are no reports of such by the locals and I am sure that the locals would have known about this, especially in a small town as Visoko. In addition, the tunnels were cramped when they first got discovered and therefore they did not serve as good shelter conditions at that time. In summary, there are no military involvement in the Ravne tunnels.

The Ravne tunnels do not have any military involvement. Notice the circular formation of the tunnel.

The biggest hypothesis of the people that are against the project of the Bosnian pyramids, is that the tunnels were just some kind of mines, probably gold mines, likely from the Middle Ages. If this is the case, then we can ask ourselves, what the miners could have found in the tunnels. In the Middle Ages, gold was very important for the people, because you could use that to trade more food or some luxurious goods. There has not been found any gold in the tunnels nor other rich materials like silver or other materials that were important in the Middle Ages. Furthermore, the gold mine hypothesis does not explain the filling material in the tunnels. Other gold mines are open, not closed with the filling material. Iron was also very important in the Middle Ages, but there is almost no clean iron to be found in the Ravne tunnels. However, there are materials that can be found in the tunnels is, for instance, quartz crystal, muscovite, sandstone, clay etc. These are the materials that people did not use often in the Middle Ages. Now other argue that the tunnels could have been used as mines in a later period, but that is also unlikely, because people were using more ‘’modern’’ materials like coal, and there has not been found any coal in the Ravne tunnels.

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One of the Ravne tunnels.

However, in 2012, volunteers made a discovery in a new section of the Ravne tunnels. They discovered an oil lamp inside one of the partially empty side tunnels (not the main tunnels). It looks like the oil lamp is from the 17th century, but it could be much older (Archaeological report from 2012). This could be a discovery that could finally bring a light to the hypothesis that the Ravne tunnels were mines in the Middle Ages or a mine after the Middle Ages and in more ‘’modern’’ times. However, I am not quite sure about that. We can probably say that the Ravne tunnels have multiple entrances. Recently the Ravne 2 entrance has been discovered and it looks like there are tunnels under the original Ravne entrance. In my opinion, there are probably many more entrances to the Ravne tunnels and the entrances are going into the same tunnels, which originally went under the Bosnian Sun pyramid before the filling material. The Ravne 2 entrance is only proving that there are more entrances to Ravne.

Oil lamp
The oil lamp that was discovered in one of the side tunnels in Ravne. Artefact discovered in 2012.
The Ravne 2 entrance.

It is highly unlikely that whoever went into the tunnels and left an oil lamp, went from the original entrance. If we take the hypothesis into consideration, that there are many different entrances to the tunnels, yet to be discovered, then this means that someone went into the tunnels from a different entrance. If someone went into the tunnels from the original entrance to Ravne, then the main entrance would have been open when it got discovered. Why someone in the past went into the tunnels is a difficult question to answer but maybe the person or group thought that there was gold or some treasures inside, but left the tunnels when they found out that there were no ‘’good’’ materials. The oil lamp could have just been left there, while they were filling the entrance they found, so that no one could have entered again, because they perhaps thought that it would be dangerous to continue for some unknown reasons. How those who went into the tunnels knew about Ravne in the first place is also a difficult question to answer, and some are connecting it with different legends. If we take the multiple entrances to Ravne hypothesis into consideration, then the different entrances could in fact look like the main entrance to Ravne which was discovered in 2006. So they opened that tunnel in hope for finding good materials or treasures, but like I wrote, they left when they found out that there were none of the above. All in all, the filling material and the oil lamp strengthen the hypothesis that there are more entrances to the tunnels, which is a big step in order to understand the construction of the Ravne tunnels.

Volunteers trying to find artefacts from the filling material.

Some argue that the dry walls are a good example of mines, because they are easy to build and hold the walls of the tunnels in a stable way. There are some examples of this, like some of the mines i Alps. However, the dry walls at the Ravne tunnels are blocking the side tunnels and behind those dry walls there are more brownish materials, which is the filling material. This only raises more questions. Either the dry walls or the filling material came first, or they were made at the same time by some civilization or culture. Again, this only proves that the tunnels were not mines, but a complex of different tunnels. Mines do not have many different side tunnels at the same place, like we can see in Ravn, and often there are three or four side tunnels only by some meters of distance. The dry walls are blocking the side tunnels by half, while the filling material is blocking almost the entire side tunnel. No matter how deep you go into the tunnels, you will still find many different dry walls. Based on all this, the dry walls were probably not some kind of walls from the Middle Ages or more modern times.

One of the mines in the Alps.
Typical side tunnel in Ravne. A dry wall blocking the side tunnel and behind that there is the filling material. On the sides you have the conglomerate which are the walls of the Ravne tunnels.

Like I said before, we can not ignore the different energies in the tunnels, especially when it comes to the healing aspect. Many people have felt better after visiting the Ravne tunnels, where there has for instance been blood pressure normalization. People that do not believe in energies have also felt that they breath much better in the Ravne unnels, than outside. This seems totally illogical to the mine-hypothesis. If you go deeper into the mines, then you would not breath as good as at the entrance to the mine. However in the Ravne tunnels, as deep as you go, the better you breath. The healing aspect is for many a subjective opinion, however, there has been many testing with different scientific instruments where they have reached to conclusions that there are energy fields in the Ravne tunnels. Because of the energy fields both on the Bosnian Sun pyramid and Ravne, we can say that they are connected with each other. There is even more, but I do not want to get any deeper in this article, but please read more here: Healing energy in the Ravne tunnelsthe phenomenon of resonance in the Labyrinth of Ravne and Ravne energy measurements.

Energy investigations at megalith K1.

When you have subjective and objective evidence of the energies in the tunnels, then you have scientific results. No matter if you are a believer or non believer of the healing aspects, you can not ignore the measurements that has been done in the Ravne tunnels. Mines do not have these kind of energies, so we can say that the Ravne tunnels are totally different than normal mines in this case.

One of many side tunnels and water channels in Ravne. Picture by Jock Doubleday.

We can ask ourselves how the Ravne tunnels are connected to the Bosnian pyramids. The Bosnian Sun pyramid is most likely connected to the Ravne tunnels. If we examine the conglomerate and the blocks on the Sun pyramid, then we can see that the materials are very similar. The blocks on the Bosnian Sun pyramid are mixed with conglomerate and clay.

The conglomerate in the Ravne tunnels. Picture by Jock Doubleday.
One of the blocks on the Bosnian Sun pyramid.

There are different hypothesis that try to connect the Ravne tunnels and the Bosnian pyramids. Some think that there are many civilizations and cultures involved, others think that there is only one civilization, while others are talking about extraterrestrial involvement. In my opinion, the Sun pyamid and Ravne tunnels are in big way connected. Those who built the pyramids digged also out the tunnels and used those materials to build the Bosnian Sun pyramid (some say also that they shaped a hill in to a pyramid). So back in ancient times, the Ravne tunnels were used because the tunnels had good materials to build a structure. In addition, they also made the tunnels all the way to the Bosnian Sun pyramid, perhaps because of better energy or a easier entrance to the pyramid. After that civilization came another civilization that build the other pyramids in the area and of course used the Ravne tunnels. Later came another civilization or culture and filled all the tunnels for some unknown reason. Of course, this is just a hypothesis, but it is very common hypothesis regarding the builders of the Bosnian pyramids. However, the ‘’correct’’ answer could be something totally different. In addition, if we are going to strengthen the connection between the Sun pyramid and Ravne, then we just need to look on some of the other pyramids in Visoko. For instance, the materials on the Bosnian Moon pyramid are different; they are mostly clay and sandstone. In both cases we can find clay everywhere on the different structures and that is because of the structural stability.

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The Ravne tunnels.

The megaliths are also important for understanding the Ravne tunnels and proving that those tunnels are not mines that were used in more modern times. On one of the megaliths in the tunnels, you can find runic symbols, which were used from the 2nd century CE and these can mostly be found in Northern-Europe. Miners would probably not have used that megalith to write things on it, because it is a too hard process. In fact, no miners would have written symbols on a stone, especially not in the high or late Middle Ages. In addition, some argue that those symbols are not the runic alphabet, but some other ancient alphabet that has been used in the region, but it surely needs more research. How the megaliths, like K2, K1, K5 etc. came into the labyrinth in the first place, is an another discussion. Some argue that the megaliths were built and shaped by some culture before a big flood that covered the megaliths with the conglomerate. One thing is certain, it is very hard to carry these megaliths because their weight is in many tons, so the megaliths were perhaps shaped inside the tunnels or were shaped before the conglomerate. None of these hypothesis are certain and the megaliths needs more research. If we take the mine hypothesis and connect it with the megaliths then we would see that it does not make any sense. The megaliths would probably have been destroyed to take out as much materials as possible or because the megaliths were in the way for the miners. However, these megaliths has not been destroyed and some megaliths in the beginning of the tunnels are a great example of that, because they still have a great form, like someone just left they there, still after this much time.

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The Runic symbols on one of the megaliths.
Megaliths at the beginning of the Ravne tunnels.

There are also no records of mines in the Ravne area in the medieval period or modern times. If there were mines, then this would have been documented somewhere. However, there has not been conducted any research at the Ravne area before the Archaeological Park: Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation started excavating the tunnels. Just as I wrote before, people were calling this cave and in their minds there was nothing historic with it. By all this, we can say that the Ravne tunnels are ancient, because these tunnels has most likely been unknown for us for a long time and it seems like there has not been much activity in the Ravne area for hundreds or thousands of years. We also have untouched tunnels that have a circular shape and like I wrote previously in this article, must have been shaped by a culture or civilization. Imagine these tunnels being at the same place with no contact with humans for thousands of years.

The ”Rabbit hole” tunnel. Notice the circular formation.

Many miners have visited the Ravne tunnels before and they have stated that they have not seen anything like these tunnels before. They are putting their finger especially on the oxygen levels in the tunnels. No matter how deep you go, you will breath even better, like I wrote before. The materials do not look like the materials the Bosnian miners are mining in ordinary mines in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The miners are often mining for coal, however, like I wrote before, there are no coal in the Ravne tunnels. However, we still need to remember that the mining techniques are different from before, but the oxygen levels in Ravne are significant from other mines, no matter which period those mines were used (Oxygen levels in Ravne). With the miners statements, we may conclude that the Ravne tunnels are not mines from a modern period.

One last point that could probably end the gold mine hypothesis is to study the main entrance to different gold mines around the world. The entrance could determine, in a good way, if this is a some kind of gold mine. I have gathered two pictures from the internet from two gold mines. One from USA and one from Australia. The first one is the Idaho Springs Gold Mine, which has a clear entrance to the mine and was in use for a long time from 1893. In addition, there is a mine mill where workers worked with the gold that came from those mines.

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Entrance to the Idaho Springs gold mine.

The second mine is in Arltunga and was one of the first gold mines in Australia. In addition, there is a town that was built in 1887 because of the gold rush at that time. The gold mine has a rectangular entrance and can be entered by someone. In addition, the mine is open and has a clear entrance.

Entrance to the Arltunga gold mine.

Let us try to compare these two mines with the Ravne tunnel entrance. If we study the Ravne tunnel entrance from 2006, we will see that it does not look similar to the other gold mine entrances at all. The filling material is filled almost to the top of the main walls and the ground level of the entrance is very narrowed.

Ravne entrance
The Ravne tunnels entrance in 2006 after some excavations. Does this look like a gold mine to you?

If this was a gold mine, then the ground level would be bigger, mainly because of the wheelbarrows. In addition, the filling material does not make any sense for a gold mine and I have addressed this before in the article. Furthermore, there are no traces of villages near the Ravne tunnel area (not talking about the Visoko area) and there has not been found any artefacts of such either. In addition, there has not been found any gold inside the Ravne tunnels, which normally would have been found in a gold mine. Based on this, we may perhaps conclude that the Ravne tunnels were not gold mines.

The Bosnian Sun pyramid and Visoko in the 1970s.

If we look deeper into the the connection between the Sun pyramid and Ravne tunnels hypothesis, then we can also speculate around the purpose of the Ravne tunnels. The Ravne tunnels could have been used as ancient mines. Mines for the conglomerate that they were using to build the Bosnian Sun pyramid. In addition, there is a lot of quartz crystal in the tunnels, that also was used in the building of the Bosnian Sun pyramid, and it was likely used for the energetic purposes. The oxygen levels are great, which meant excellent breathing conditions. However, how they made so good oxygen levels in all tunnels is still a mystery. They could have used some kind of ancient technology. Not the technology we use today, but their own technology which they combined with nature, because those who were digging out the Ravne tunnels and building or reshaping the Sun pyramid were deeply connected with nature, and this natural ancient technology we can still feel today if we visit the Ravne tunnels.

One of the Ravne tunnels. Picture by Haris Delibasic.

Furthermore, there are megaliths that are making energetic vibrations that are energizing the workers and healing for instance pain in their body. All this makes the mining process more efficiently. Not only that, but you have tunnels that are going directly under the Bosnian Sun pyramid. If we are going to follow the carbon datings, then the Ravne tunnels and the Sun pyramid are built in the same time period, which is circa 29 000-34 000 years ago (Bosnian Sun pyramid over 29 000 years old). The ancient mine hypothesis is still speculation and the tunnels could have been used for something totally different. However, there is a strong connection between the conglomerate in Ravne and the Sun pyramid, which strengthen this hypothesis. The tunnels were perhaps filled with the filling material because of the easy access to the Bosnian Sun pyramid, which may mean that the tunnels inside the Bosnian Sun pyramid hide some big secrets. No matter what people think about the Ravne tunnels, the filling material is still a very big mystery. The only way we will know more about this, is by excavating and researching even more.

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Tunnels under the Bosnian Sun pyramid.

Another thing that makes the medieval hypothesis unlikely is the lack of artefacts from medieval period that has been found in the Ravne tunnels. If the Ravne tunnels were mines from the medieval period, then we would see a lot of more artefacts from that time, but we do not have any artefacts, other than the oil lamp, which I have addressed before and concluded that that there are different entrances that to go to Ravne tunnels. The medieval period ended circa 500 years ago, and these kind of artefacts do not disappear that fast by some kind decomposition, because they are build from different metals, with good quality. However, the Ravne tunnels could be prehistoric. Like I stated before, there has probably been some civilizations or cultures which were active in the tunnels. We have probably two civilizations or cultures. Those who digged out the conglomerate for the Bosnian Sun pyramid and those that filled all those tunnels. Those who filled all those tunnels or lived in the area before the tunnels were filled, could have removed the artefacts perhaps for their own use or they got destroyed. Destroying artefacts is not unusual at all. Romans did that very frequently. One example is the Temple of Jerusalem, which got destroyed by the Romans in 70 CE in the siege of Jerusalem (Temple in Jerusalem). The culture or civilization that perhaps removed the artefacts and destroyed them, wanted to front their own things, and the artefacts could only have gotten in the way of that, because the builders of the pyramid and/or the diggers of the Ravne tunnels were superior. Then those who destroyed the artefacts would have been even more superior than them and they would control the region and the people, because they would now be the most powerful.  

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The destroyment of the Temple in Jerusalem. Painting by Francesco Hayez.

However, the artefacts of those that were involved in the building of the pyramids or those that filled the tunnels could be in front of our noses. There has often been found many different stones that fit perfectly in to your hand and that can be used for some kind of construction. We need to remember that those builders who built or reshaped the Bosnian Sun pyramids were living with the nature and things that look like stones to us, could likely be artefacts of those who came before us – the ancients. However, we need to keep in mind that many of these artefacs were removed or destroyed after other cultures came and perhaps a good example of this is those who filled the tunnels with the filling material. I am not saying all this to make artefacts out of stones, but when there are many different stones that has the same size, form and colour, then these could be some kind of tool. Tools that has been stones before, but reshaped to be tools of the culture of civilization that lived in the area. If we keep researching and go deeper into the tunnels, then I am sure that we will find more interesting artefacts. If you want to know more about the artefacts of the Bosnian pyraids, please read my article: The mysterious artefacts of the Bosnian pyramids.

One of the possible tools that could have been used by the builders of the pyramids. Picture by Bob Amsterdam.
Perfectly shaped artefact from the Ravne tunnels.
Possible tool artefacts from the Ravne tunnels.

We have now discussed the Ravne tunnels and some of its most popular hypothesis. We have argued that the Ravne tunnels are not weapon storages and probably not some kind of mines from medieval period, because of the filling material, dry walls blocking the side tunnels, runic symbols, no artefacts from medieval period or modern time; other than a oil lamp which probably is from those who entered the tunnels from another entrance and lack of materials that were important, for instance, gold and iron. In addition, we have discussed the possibility of the tunnels being an ancient mine which could have been used to take out the conglomerate for the building of the Bosnian Sun pyramid. The research and excavations needs to be continued, but at least we have a better understanding of the Ravne tunnels and its hypothesis.

* * *

My name is Djani Behram. I am a researcher of ancient places around the world, mostly in Bosnia and Herzegovina. I am also the ambassador of the Archaeological Park: Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation and I have volunteered at the Bosnian pyramids in 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015 and now 2016. I have good experience about the Bosnian pyramids and archaeological sites in the region. In addition, I own the biggest site about the Bosnian pyramids, which is posting news and pictures almost every day. I also own a YouTube site, called TheBIHLover, which is posting a video almost every Wednesday. If you have any questions or feedback, please send it to my email: djanimikki@gmail.com

My Facebook page:


My YouTube channel:


Bosnian pyramids official website:


Further research:

Reports about the Bosnian pyramids

Discovery of New Prehistoric Underground Tunnels at Bosnian Pyramids

Resonance in the Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids



3 thoughts on “Discussing the Ravne Tunnels and the Mine Hypothesis”

  1. As you discuss the hypothesis that I, among others, have offered, of modern gold or silver mines in Ravne, why don’t you give a link to this same hypothesis? So your readers may judge by themselves the various arguments, instead of the distorted version you present here. In science, when you try to refute a hypothesis you should offer the reader the possibility to read that hypothesis directly, that’s a pre-requisite 🙂


    1. Hello Irna. Well, you have linked it now to your site. You are not the only one that has suggested that the Ravne tunnels were some kind of mines, probably from the modern period. Like always, I present the different hypothesis, then I start to discuss them.


    2. And in science Irna people are first of all using their REAL names and identity to stand behind their hypothesis. And not only in science, but in any respectful communication if wish to be taken seriously.


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