The Exploration and Discussion of the Stecaks Around Stolac

In 2016, I went on an exploration journey to Stolac, Bosnia and Herzegovina, for one day, to explore the different Stecaks (plural: Stećci in Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian, often called Stecaks in English) and to make some videos for my channel (TheBIHLover). I went to three different locations, which are separated by some kilometers. The locations were Radimlja, Boljuni and Boskailo Harem. But firstly, if we are going to discuss and understand the Stecaks, we need to start with the original history – history that historians has discussed and researched for many years.

The Stecaks are located mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina, but also Croatia, Serbia and Montenegro. It has been estimated that there are 60 000 of them in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the rest of them (10 000) are found at the borders to Croatia, Serbia and Montenegro. They are found at more than 3300 sites, where over 90% of them are in a poor condition. There were probably even more of them, but many of them got destroyed by other cultures, especially Austro-Hungarian Empire were destroying them when they were building roads for transportation of different goods.

One of the Stecaks that can be found in Radimlja.

If we are going to follow the original history, then Stecaks were medieval tombstones and they started appearing in the 12th century and continued to increase until the Ottoman occupation at the beginning of the 16th century. Historians think that they were also a common tradition for the Bosnian Church, but perhaps also for some Bogomlis. At the start the historians thought that they belonged to the Bogmolis, but this theory has later been challenged. It is still discussed of who the Stecaks belonged to, however, many historians agree that it belongs to the Bosnian Church.

On some of them, you can also find the Bosnian Cyrillic, which was particularly used by the Bosnian Church, according to the historians. Although the writings started appearing later, probably in the 13th century and most of the Stecaks do not have any Bosnian Cyrillic on them at all (Wikipedia). Additionally there can be found many different symbols on them, and they are very interesting. The shape of the Stecaks are often rectangular, with a triangular shape on top. According to the original history, the triangular shape or a form of a chest, does not appear before the end of the 14th century. Additionally, many of them are placed on a plate, but also some of them are placed without any support on the ground, which is very interesting for many historians.

One of the Stecaks in Mramorje, Serbia.

In addition, the Stecaks has been inscribed as an UNESCO World Heritage Site. However, it only includes 30 necropolises (a historical burial site) – of which 22 from Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2 from Croatia, 3 from Montenegro and 3 from Serbia (Source) The other 3270 are not included. If you want to take a look on the terrain of these 30 Stecaks, please do so here: (UNESCO Map)

Based on the historical facts that has been researched by historians in the past, for instance Nada Miletic in 1982 (Link) and Ante Milosevic in 1991 (Link), still many argue that the Stecaks still needs a lot of research, for instance Dejan Vemic states as follows at the beginning of his MA thesis: ”Although Stecci have been investigated for more than a century and thousands of them have been found many questions still arise. Many monuments have been only registered as existing, with no excavation; most of them have not been excavated archaeologically.” (Source)

In this article, I will focus on three different Stecak locations, two of them are documented by UNESCO. These locations are very interesting in my opinion. All of them are close to Stolac. Additionally, I will give my own opinion regarding the Stecaks at the end of this article.

Radimlja Necropolis

It is a hot summer day in Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and I decided to visit some of the Stecak sides around Stolac. The first destination is the most known one when it comes to the Stecaks and it is Radimlja, a 40 minutes’ drive from Mostar and it is about 5 minutes from Stolac. Stolac is a very historical place and the first signs of a culture is the Badanj cave paintings, which were probably made circa 15 000 BCE. Daorson, an Illyrian acropolis is also nearby, which for many is a sign of advanced technology – many argue that the blocks are too perfect and that the tribe who made them had some kind of ancient technology. Additionally, Daorson is placed on a hill, which make them even more mysterious. Both of these important locations are only some minutes from Radimlja.

The apparant paintings at Badanj Cave.
Daorson in 2014.

We (my grandfather and I) finally arrived to Radimlja. The first time I came here was with my parents in 2008 and at that time I was 9 years old. The ones that were looking after the Stecaks in Radimlja were charging tickets, approximately 3 US dollars. Additionally, they have made a fence that was going around the Stecaks. In 2008 there were none of these things above, just an ordinary Stecaks site – although it is one of the most researched Stecak sites in history.

A Stecak and me in Radimlja in 2008.

The Radimlja necropolis has 133 tombstones, of which 63 of them is decorated with symbols – there are only about two Stecaks with the Bosnian Cyrillic (Source). It was even more tombstones in the area, but many of them got destroyed when the Austro-Hungarians were building the Capljina-Stolac road that is crossing the necropolis site in the middle. The building of the road started at the end of the 19th century. Today the Radimlja site is split into two sections. The form of the Stecaks is four sided (triangular), in a cross, many of them has a ‘’chest’’ on top and some totally flat. Many of them have plates under them. Some of the symbols that can be found is an anchor, grapes, flowers, spirals, circles and the most popular one; figures with a raised hand – this symbol is also placed on the Bosnian Marks (10 KM) (Link). In addition, from the Stecak site, you may see Daorson on the north-eastern hill. There is also a river nearby the Stecaks called ‘’Radimlja’’ that is running into the river ‘’Bregava.’’ This could indicate that there was an even larger river nearby in the past, but also that the site was under the sea once. This can be proved particularly by the flat terrain in the whole Radimlja-region.

Radimlja Stecaks.
A Stecak-cross, that may symbolize the Bosnian Church.
A Stecak with Bosnian Cyrillic.
The famous Stecaks.
The second part of the Radimlja necropolis.
Human riding a horse and hunting animals.
Flat and rectangular Stecaks.
A flat Stecak.
An amazing Stecak.

In addition, there can also be found a Stecak where there is a man on a horse, hunting a deer and it looks very beautiful. Perhaps this could indicate that those who lived in the area visited the Badanj Cave in the past and found some artefacts and decided to honor them and place them on one of the Stecaks? Of course, they perhaps did not know anything about them, but they had an idea of how they lived? It can also indicate that those who made them wanted to honor those who were often riding horses and hunting food for the people. If we are going to follow the original history, then the Stecaks with symbols started appearing later, probably in the 14th century. Those that do not have any symbols are older, but perhaps the Stecaks that have symbols on them were without them at first, but were added later? Just some thoughts that stroke me when I was there.

After I made a video and researched some of the Stecaks in Radimlja, we continued to Boljuni – which is even more interesting.

Boljuni Necropolis

We drove for about 25 minutes from Stolac to Boljuni. The road was going up on a mountain and in an isolated area. Here there were some intense fights between the Bosnian-Serbs and Bosnian-Croats in the Bosnian war – only 5-10 kilometers from Boljuni you will find the ‘’border’’ of Republic of Serbia. Nevertheless, we were following the main road, called M17.3. At first we missed the road that was going directly to Boljuni necropolis, we returned and continued to Boljuni – luckily there were two signs that instructed us where we should drive in order to arrive to the location. We finally arrived, a family – that was on holiday and lived in their cottage – welcomed us. My main objective was to investigate, take some photos and make a video regarding the Boljuni Stecaks.

The Boljuni Stecaks were split into two parts, one that was going to the south (Boljuni I) and the other north-west (Boljuni II). First I went to the southern part. There are in total 273 Stecaks there (Source: The Mystery of Boljuni Book, 2012) – one of the biggest necropolises in the region! I walked slowly. There were a lot of insects and I was scared that I would confront a snake. The first Stecak that I saw was an amazing one. It had animal-figures on it with Bosnian Cyrillic! There were even more Stecaks where humans were riding horses and hunting animals. On the Stecak with the Bosnian Cyrillic, there can be found four people on it (on the side of it). The first thoughts that I had in Radimlja – that the Stecaks had connections with the Badanj Cave, were probably wrong. Those who lived in the region at that time were connected with nature. Nature was their key for everything for instance one of the most important things in life; food. In addition, here in Boljuni there are symbols of people holding hands (also on the Stecak with the Bosnian Cyrillic, picture bellow) which could mean that every one of them were dependent on other humans, probably to survive. They could also have had a system of tasks. One person hunts, the other cooks.

Sign places in the middle of the necropolis, showing us the way to the different Stecaks (Necropolis I and Necropolis II).

However, the question if the symbols and inscriptions on the different Stecaks were added later is still open. Perhaps there were good carvers back then? And the answer is; yes. Sefik Beslagic writes in his book ‘’Stecci – Kultura i Umjetnosti’’ that there were three inscription-makers and they were experts for their time. The three of them were called Master Grubac, Master Radoje and Master Semorad (The book from 1979). Apparently they made many of these symbols on the Stecaks and formed actual schools to learn others to make the Stecak symbols. If this is true, then this means that many knew how to make great symbols on the Stecaks. The questions raises: Why are most of the Stecaks without any symbols? If they formed actual schools, then I would suspect that these symbols would have appeared on most of the Stecaks, but no, many of them do not have any symbols, especially not on the older ones. Often there are perhaps 3 or 4 Stecaks that have these kind of symbols, while the other do not. In addition, only a few Stecaks of the other thousands have Cyrillic symbols on them and we need to keep in mind that many of these ‘’texts’’ that contain Cyrillic on them have not been translated yet. I will discuss this later in this article.

An amzing Stecak with animals and Bosnian Cyrillic.
Necropolis I, Boljuni.
More Stecaks that can be found in Necropolis I, Boljuni.
The cross, placed at the entrance to Necropolis II, Boljuni.
Necropolis II.
Spirals and the Bosnian Cyrillic, placed on a flat Stecak.

I continued to investigate the Stecaks and take photographs of some of them from distance, because I did not want to go deeper into the necropolis – the grass was very high and I was scared that a snake could hide behind a Stecak. We need to keep in mind that I visited the site in the morning!

I continued to the north-eastern Stecaks and the first thing I saw was the cross, standing at the entrance to the different Stecaks. Here also we have similar symbols – humans, animals, swords, trees, Bosnian Cyrillic, crosses etc. The Stecaks are flat, like ‘’chests’’ and rectangular (Source: The Mystery of Boljuni Book, 2012). These Stecaks were even more beautiful than those in Radimlja. There is no doubt in my mind that a culture were living near this place back in time and even if we are on a mountain, some kilometers from here – to the west you have ‘’Hutovo Blato’’ and ‘’Deranjsko Jezero,’’ which are Nature Parks. Here you can find many different kinds of animals, everything from birds to fish. I am sure that it was enough to make a culture there. Additionally, there has been some investigations there, but it would be a good idea to open a research group where they are going to investigate all aspects of Boljuni Stecaks – I will give some of my thoughts later in this article.

The cross.

I went back to the car in happiness – this was a very interesting site! Before we went back the family which greeted us when we came, offered us homemade pomegranate-juice. It turns out that the husband and father of the family were one of those who made a book on Boljuni Stecaks, called ‘’The Mystery of Boljuni.’’ I, of course, decided to buy the book from him, which I am now using as a source for this article.

The book I am using as a source.

After a small break we continued to Stolac and when we came there, we sat down to drink something refreshing and to relax a bit – the sun can be really exhausting, especially in the dry lands of Herzegovina.

Boskailo Harem Necropolis

After the break, we continued to Boskailo Harem. The place is not originally called Boskailo Harem, but we are calling it that in this article. ‘’Boskailo’’ is a Muslim surname, while ‘’Harem’’ means a Muslim graveyard. The Muslim graveyard is only some meters from the Stecak. I visited the Boskailo Harem Stecaks in 2014 and only a few know about them, I heard about them from my elderly friend. Because they were very interesting, I decided to visit them again this year. It was hard to find them and again we were in the middle of nowhere. There were no signs that were pointing to them and when we asked the locals about the directions; they were quite frankly very surprised that we knew about them – you could see on the look of their faces that they were not used to ‘’tourists.’’

Nevertheless, the Boskailo Harem Stecaks is between a village called ‘’Rotimlja’’ and the Radimlja Stecaks. We finally arrived there – no one was there and it was similar as in 2014, except the vegetation at the Stecaks. It covered almost all of them! Luckily I have some pictures from 2014, to compare how it looked like.

The site in 2014 (more Stecaks left to the picture).
The site in July, 2016.

I continued slowly into the high vegetation. There are about 25-30 Stecaks there. I did not want to get any deeper than 4-5 meters from the different Stecaks, because I did feel like no one has visited the Stecaks in ages and that the place may crawl with snakes or other insects (the place was filled with ants and small flies).

On these Stecaks also we can see symbols of figures and flowers, but most of the Stecaks do not have any symbols (the pictures from 2014 helped me a lot). To the left you have the Muslim graveyard and it seems like that some Ottomans placed their graveyards next to the Stecaks – many were probably also destroyed by them, but this one in particular is nice symbolically. No matter which religion one have – one can live in harmony with other religions. Because I could not find any records of the Boskailo Stecaks, it is difficult to say why these Stecaks are here, at this place. Perhaps there were ancient farmers who produced grapes for wine or something else? Some of these Stecaks are small, some of them are big – with the ‘’chest’’ shape, triangular and flat – just like other Stecaks that can be found. There is no doubt in my mind that they are connected with other Stecaks, because they have the same design and symbols, perhaps there was a culture living in the Rotimlja village and decided to bury the dead at that place?

Boskailo Harem Stecak in 2014.
Boskailo Harem Stecak in 2014.
Boskailo Harem Stecak in 2014.
Stecak covered in vegetation. The Muslim graveyard to the left. To the right, behind the vegetation, there are more Stecaks. Picture taken in 2016.
Another Stecak. Picture taken in 2016.

It was too hot, the vegetation was too big and the flies were all over. It was time to abandon the site after I spent some minutes researching it and making a video. We returned back to Mostar.

The next week I decided to go to Mogorjelo villa, to make another video and to research some of the Stecaks that can be found some meters from it. I will not get deeper into this, but Morgorjelo was an ancient Roman Villa that was used by many different cultures. Some meters from the villa, one can find several Stecaks. It only shows that wherever there has been a settlement, there are also some kind of Stecaks.

Thoughts about the Stecaks

It was a very interesting exploration journey, back home I started researching the Stacaks even more and it only raised more questions for me. Why are there so many Stecaks in such a ‘’small’’ region? There could be a logical explanation; the Black Death (Source). The Black Death killed millions of people and I am sure that it did hit the Balkan region pretty hard when it came from Turkey. Balkan region was one of the first regions to get the Black Death and I am sure that it killed thousands in only some months. That could be one of the reasons of why there are so many Stecaks that got created in some centuries. But that raises another question; how did they get all the time to build and carry those blocks to the different locations? Even though there has been some research, it is still mysterious in my opinion. Yes, there could have been masters that built these, but over 60 000 in such a short time? There would especially have been lack of time to build all these in 4 centuries. The Black Death killed many people and for many countries in Europe it had terrible effects for the infrastructure, the governmental system etc. The original history is claiming that the Stecaks began to appear in the middle of 12th century, but is it possible that some of them are older than that if we are going to take into consideration that the Black Death had devastating effects on the region? In fact, the first Stecak was created – according to the original history – was Grdesa (Link). Like Dejan Vemic states in his MA thesis; that most of the Stecaks are recorded, but many of them have not been archaeologically excavated – how can we be so sure that the Stecaks started appearing in the 12th century?

A Radimlja Stecak.

Taking all this into consideration, the Stecaks could easily have started appearing in the 9th or 10th century. As far as I know, there are no secure records that have recorded how many people were living in the region at the time period when the Stecaks were built. And we need to remember that many of those who lived there, were not buried at the Stecaks, but somewhere else. Yes, there has been some archaeological excavation and it has revealed skeletons of humans under the Stecak, but often there is not one person buried there, but two or three (Source, from page 44). Instead of one Stecak for every person, they buried others under it too, probably friends or family. And if the situation is like this at almost all the Stecaks, then this means that there were probably over 100 000 people living in the area at that time – which makes the hypothesis that the Stecaks were built earlier than 12th century plausible.

In addition, even if there were masters making these symbols and Stecaks, it would probably have taken a longer time to make 60 000 of them, than the original history is claiming. Furthermore, what is very interesting is that almost every Stecak is built in the same way and with the same material. This means that there was a great culture living there that had communication with each other. And I believe that Sefik Beslagic is very right that the masters that made the symbols on the Stecaks, created schools, because the inscriptions and the Stecaks are too similar in the region. However, not only schools that were educating in how to make the best symbols and Stecaks, but also other things, for instance religion, philosophy, mathematics etc. Yes, it was a dark time for culture of antiquity in medieval times, but we need to remember that this region was not in the hands of Catholic or the Orthodox Church. Both of the churches were respecting the Bosnian Church and it means that it was perhaps some room for philosophy for example, plus the region was close to Greece, which is the center of antiquity. It could even have been different texts of what they thought and what they did, but it perhaps got destroyed when the Ottomans occupied the region and demanded that people followed the Islamic religion and of course, some even fled to other countries and went to be a Catholic or Orthodox. With the Ottomans, the Bosnian Kingdom also disappeared and the Stecaks were now history.

A Radimlja Stecak.

Taking into consideration that there were schools that were for instance teaching in how to make the best Stecaks, many of the Stecaks do not have any symbols and why they do not, is a tough question to answer. In Boskailo Harem, you had 2 or 3 that had some symbols and the others without. If those without symbols are older (like some historian state), then it would be a different and perhaps an older texture on the material. Perhaps those Stecaks who had symbols on them were burials for ‘’special’’ people that were important for the people in that area? It certainly needs more research.

Beautiful decoration on a Radimlja Stecak.

Now, I do not want to get into the meanings of the different symbols, because I am not a historian or archaeologist yet, and I trust people like Marian Wenzel, which has made a book in 1965 called ‘’Ornamental motifs on tombstones from medieval Bosnia.” (The book by Marian Wenzel, 1965). However, we need to remember that this books was made in 1965 and even if there has been some research on the symbols, it is still not enough and the history needs to be updated because we always have new hypothesis and new discoveries. When I made the article ”The Mysterious Bosnian Obelisk,” I claimed that the spirals were perhaps some kind of galaxies. Now I can say that I disagree with myself. However, the spirals could mean something else, for instance infinity; it can mean different things. For example that the universe is infinite or that it is aimed on the humans. First you get born, then you live, then you die and after your death your will live as an ”angel” with God and you will be there for eternity. Just some thoughts.

Olovo 1
The spiral on the Bosnian Obelisk in Olovo.
Spirals on a Stecak in Radimlja.

Now, the spirals on the Stecaks are not special at all. There are many cultures in the world that are using spirals as their symbols – from California to New Zealand. Of course, we need to keep in mind that cultures have different languages and different understandings of the symbols. The meaning of the spirals on the Stecaks, can mean something different in other places. So we may never know what the spirals actually mean and we can hypothesize about it as long as we want, because that is the amazing thing with science.

In my opinion, it would be a very good idea to establish a research group that will only focus and research the different Stecaks in the region. Everything from archaeologists, geologists, anthropologists, engineers etc. They may choose 10-30 necropolises that they will study and make archaeological excavations, anthropological studies and perhaps energy investigations – no research is too much research, we will only get smarter of it. After they have researched everything, then they may make a big report so that everyone can read it. It would have been an excellent idea to understand the Stecaks in a better way, even if we know some elements about them.

A Stecak in Radimlja.

Now, I end this article with humbleness. Because these Stecaks – those people who made them and those who are buried under them – needs our attention and our research, because they really deserve it after they have been forgotten and destroyed for many centuries. They are a clear example that people – with differences – can live in harmony and that 2 or 3 people can be buried under the same tombstone. The Stecaks are probably the most important artefact from medieval times for the region and the Bosnian Church that has for long time been forgotten in history.

* * *

Djani Behram is a researcher of ancient places around the world, mostly in Bosnia and Herzegovina. He is also the ambassador of the Archaeological Park: Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation and has volunteered at the Bosnian pyramids for five years now. He also has good experiences with the Bosnian pyramids and archaeological sites in the region. In addition, he owns the biggest site about the Bosnian pyramids, which is posting news and pictures almost every day. He also owns a YouTube site, called TheBIHLover, which is posting a video almost every Wednesday.

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Radimlja Nekropola

The Accusations by the Museum of Visoko

August 31, 2016, published an article regarding the Royal Town of Visoki (Link), which is located on the top of the Bosnian Sun pyramid. Apparently Mr. Mahir Sahinovic witnessed people that are making camp fires and using the stones of the Royal Town of Visoki to build small columns. He reported this to the Museum of Visoko (Bosnian: Zavicajni Muzej Visoko), and they went to the location to investigate the area.

They confirmed the observations by Mr. Shahinovic. There are even pictures on the article that confirm this. Now, I condemn the actions by these people and no one should do that on archaeological places. Royal Town of Visoki is no doubt one of the most important heritages in Bosnia and Herzegovina and should be further excavated and researched.

The Royal Town of Visoki.

The reason why I am making this article is because some of the later statements that was made by the Museum of Visoko. They were quick to blame the Archaeological Park: Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation for all this. They are claiming that the foundation had bigger groups on the top of the pyramid and that they were having some kind of rituals. This is a very serious accusation by the Museum of Visoko.

The foundation has not had any groups on the top of the Bosnian Sun pyramid. In fact, the federal minister of culture and sport, Mrs. Zora Dujmovic, has already forbidden the foundation to have any kind of groups on the top of the Bosnian Sun pyramid. This happened before the Summer Solstice 2016, probably June 7. So the foundation can not organize any groups on the top of the pyramid. Furthermore, the accusations by the Museum of Visoko is four days before the grand tour ”Pyramid Power.” The foundation has not organized a tour in over two months, especially not on top of the Bosnian Sun pyramid.

The document by Mrs. Zora Dujmovic.

Those people that were on top of the Sun pyramid, were probably there privately. The foundation had no responsibility regarding these people, plus the foundation can not organize anything on top of the Sun pyramid. The foundation has already made an announcement June 7, 2016, that they are going to organize all rituals and concerts at Park Ravne 2, and they have done that ever since. In addition, the Archaeological Park: Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation has already dismissed the claims by the Museum of Visoko (Link).

I would rather question the Museum of Visoko. Why don’t they secure the place? I mean, the Bosnian Sun pyramid (or Visocica for some) is already a protected area by the state, so they should secure the place themselves. After many years there has been no excavations on the Royal Town of Visoki, and the federal ministry of culture and sport has already made it clear that the foundation should not be involved in the Royal Town of Visoki. So instead of blaming themselves for this situation, contacting the politicians that are in control of the country and the mayor of Visoko, they are only blaming a foundation that has nothing to do with the Royal Town of Visoki. Yes, the foundation is promoting the pyramids, but they still have nothing to do with the individuals that was caught doing bad things at the Royal Town of Visoki. The museum should protect this site.

The Museum of Visoko.

Making the accusations that the Museum of Visoko has made, is in many countries illegal. They have no evidence whatsoever that the foundation Archaeological Park: Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun is responsible for vandalism on top of the pyramid. Furthermore, the Museum of Visoko should rather find those who are responsible rather that accusing a another organization.

In addition, the Museum of Visoko is responsible for the Royal Town of Visoki, but are bad in cutting the grass and other vegetation for example. I know that the economy is not that great in Visoko and Bosnia and Herzegovina, but they could do something with the situation, for example to make the Royal Town of Visoki a bigger touristic site. Meanwhile the Museum of Visoko is accusing the foundation of vandalism, the foundation is making a great park that is available for everyone, and will secure a lot of tourists to Visoko and Bosnia and Herzegovina.

A part of Park Ravne 2.

The Museum of Visoko is important for the heritage of the Visoko-region, but they should not blame other organizations when they have no evidence. In addition, we need to protect all archaeological heritages, but blaming other organizations is not the way to go. There will always be individuals that do not respect the archaeological sites. Placing signs of what is legal and what is illegal on the Royal Town of Visoki and inspections of the site every week should be a good start to protect the Royal Town of Visoki, because it is the Museum’s responsibility to do so.

The Access Ramps and the Stabilization of the Bosnian Pyramids

The Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids consists of five structures, where four of them are pyramids. The special thing about these structures is the access ramp to each of the pyramids. Most pyramids around the world do not have an access ramp to to their tops, and are often standing alone without any support. We may say that the access ramp in the Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids is one of the most import features they have, therefore, I am going to explain and discuss them in this article. In addition, I will write about the importance of stability of the different structures.

map-bosnian-pyramids (1)
The Bosnian valley of the pyramids.

The Bosnian Sun pyramid is over 220 meters tall and has an access ramp that is connected with almost the whole structure. By studying the ramp in 3D, we can clearly see how the ramp is shaped. Before the ramp there are some kind of hills, but when the ramp is closer to the pyramid, we can see that it flats out and it goes all the way to the pyramid, with almost the same shape and size. On the sides, we can see that it goes downwards and it creates a very nice ramp.

The Bosnian Sun pyramid and the ramp in 3D.

We already know that the Sun pyramid is matching the cardinal points perfectly and because the access ramp to the pyramid is directly in the middle of the structure, then the ramp is also matching the cardinal points. If this was a natural hill, then the Sun pyramid would not have matched with the cardinal, especially not the access ramp too.

Looking to the western side of the pyramid from the access ramp.
The Sun pyramid and access ramp matching the cardinal points.

There has been some excavations in 2006 on the access ramp to the Sun pyramid. The blocks that can be found are mostly sandstone. Behind those blocks there is clay, marl and a more softer sandstone. There is probably some erosion involved, and this is probably the cause of why there is not so much blocks to be found on the sides of the ramp and we can not exclude the possibility that many of the blocks were taken over the years for people’s own use. It seems like the ramp to the Sun pyramid was built of clay and sandstone, it could have also been a hill previously, but shaped to be an access ramp. In addition, it works like support for the Sun pyramid and gives a stable structure for thousands of years.

The blocks on the access ramp.
Softer sandstone and clay.

Like I wrote before, the Bosnian Sun pyramid is not the only pyramid that has an access ramp. All the pyramid in the valley are having a some kind of ramp. The Moon and Love pyramid has access ramp to the top and a plateau directly on the top of the pyramids. The Dragon pyramid also has a very small plateau, while the access ‘’ramp’’ to the top is by a hill. What is interesting is that the access ramp to the Bosnian Moon pyramid is matching the cardinal points, just like the pyramid itself. I have already discussed the cardinal points in an article and you can read it here: The cardinal points and the mysteries of the Bosnian pyramids 

Samo mali video 110.JPG
The Bosnian Moon pyramid.

As we know, all pyramids in Visoko are having an access ramp, where most of the pyramids are inclined to the access ramp and the ramp is inclined to a hill. There are two very important reasons of why the pyramids are connected with an access ramp. The first reason is the easy access. Instead of climbing the top of the pyramid, you can access it by the ramp. In addition, the access ramp was very important in the building process of the pyramids. It was much easier to place the blocks on top of each other by having a ramp. Some of the pyramids in Egypt was also most likely built with the help of a ramp, so we can clearly see some connections between the building process at the Bosnian pyramids and other pyramids around the world.

An example of the access ramps that could have been used for the building of the Egyptian pyramids.

The second reason is, of course, the structural stability. There is no secret that the region of Bosnia and Herzegovina has had a lot of tectonic activity in the past years. In fact, the Balkan region has the most active tectonics in Europe. It seems like the builders or those that were involved in the Bosnian pyramids knew about the tectonic activity in region and instead of building or shaping the pyramid as they did in Egypt or Mexico, they made an access ramp where the pyramid is inclined and it gives a structural stability. If a large earthquake would occur, the structure would not collapse, because the access ramp is stabilizing the whole structure and they knew how important stable structures are. Therefore the builders created or shaped the pyramids close to some hills or made an artificial access ramp.

The access ramp could have been used for the stabilization of the structure.

The pyramids in Visoko are not the only structures that has an access ramp. Five kilometers from Visoko you can find Vratnica tumulus, where it also has an access ramp. In addition, the tumulus is inclined to this particular ramp likely because of structural stability. Again, it seems like every civilization and culture involved in the Bosnian pyramids knew about the tectonic activity in the region.

Vratnica tumulus from the air.

We can even see this on the different trenches that has been excavated. On the Bosnian Sun pyramid, there are vertical and horizontal blocks, and again, it seems like they knew about the tectonic plates and therefore they placed the blocks differently. Placing the blocks differently would only give strength to the structure. If one row of blocks collapses, then the other row would prevent the other blocks to collapse, and therefore you have a secure structure. This means that the structure could hold for thousands of years.

Vertical blocks on the Bosnian Sun pyramid.
Horizontal blocks on the Bosnian Sun pyramid.

The importance of stable structures is also showing on the other pyramids and the Bosnian Moon pyramid is a good example of that. The materials that the Moon pyramid is built out of is mostly sandstone and clay. It seems like they shaped the sandstone blocks and placed them between clay. Again, it seem like those who shaped or built the Bosnian Moon pyramid knew about the plate tectonics and that those plates could have made many earthquakes, especially in the Balkan region. Therefore they placed clay between the blocks, because it was an excellent stabilization material. When the structure is inclined to a hill and is made of clay, then the structure would hold for a long time.

Sonda 20, Moon pyramid blocks.
Sonda 20, Moon pyramid blocks.

The same thing happens at the Vratnica tumulus. They made blocks which are mostly hard sandstone and again, they placed clay between them. However, the Vratnica tumulus is a bit special, because of the placement of the blocks. Instead of putting them in a normal way like we do today, they cut the blocks in different shapes and placed them. It seems almost like a puzzle, but it was very smart. If an earthquake would occur, then those blocks would lock themselves and with the help of clay, the blocks would not collapse, which is genius.

Vratnica tumulus blocks.
Vratnica tumulus blocks.

The blocks at the Vratnica tumulus are not the only blocks that has been placed like that. A good example is only around 180 kilometers from Visoko, in a place called Daorson. Darosi were an Illyrian tribe which lived there between 350 BCE and 50 BCE. The walls of Daorson are placed on top of a hill and the walls are made in a special way. Instead of placing many of those blocks so that the sides match each other, they are placing the blocks in a way that the sides are in contact with the middle of the block under and over. Not all blocks are like that, but many of them are. The reason why they did this is probably because of the different earthquakes and by placing them in the way they did, the walls would be much more stable, which is very important in a place where it is a lot of tectonic activity. All this seems very logical.

Daorson blocks.
Daorson blocks.

Daorson is not the only one that has these kind of walls. Some of the Machu Picchu walls has almost the exact construction feature, where sides of the blocks are crossing in the middle. Peru is situated along the boundary of two tectonic plates, which are the Nazca Plate and the South American Plate, this means that the earthquakes are frequent. Just as in Daorson, they made these walls, so that the structure would not collapse and hold for many years after the Incas were gone.

Some of the Machu Picchu walls. Picture by Graca Pimentel.

We already know that the access ramp was made for structural stability, but under the access ramp of the Bosnian Sun pyramid we have probably many tunnels. Those tunnels were detected by a satellite tunnel scan and was presented by Klaus Dona. We can clearly see that there are tunnels that are going under the access ramp and into the Bosnian Sun pyramid. In addition, if we are going to follow the map of the tunnels, then there are probably tunnels under the access ramp that is going to the Love pyramid. This probably means that the access ramps are full of tunnels and could also have served as a binder for the tunnels that can be found from Ravne to the Sun pyramid.

Supposed tunnels under the Bosnian Sun pyramid and the access ramp.

We can even connect the Ravne tunnels and the access ramp on the surface. The Ravne tunnels are circa 2,5 kilometers from the Bosnian Sun pyramid. The biggest hypothesis regarding the Sun pyramid and Ravne tunnels is that the conglomerate from Ravne was used for the blocks of the Sun pyramid. So, they digged the tunnels and instead of going a longer way, through where the town of Visoko is today, they went another way towards the access ramp. And really, the way to the access ramp is much shorter and easier than the way through where the town is today.

The entrance to the Ravne tunnels.

I have looked into the two ways to get to the ramp of the Bosnian Sun pyramid. If you are going directly to the ramp today from Ravne it would probably take you circa 58 minutes and the distance is 3,8 kilometers. The other way, through the town of Visoko, takes you circa one hour and 22 minutes and the distance is 5,3 kilometers. This is just tested through Google Maps and it still needs more research. However, we now know that the way from Ravne is much shorter if we you go directly to the ramp, rather than through the town of Visoko. We also need to keep in mind that it would take some time to carry those materials, but it would take a longer time to do that through where the town of Visoko is today. In addition, the Google Maps is showing the easiest way to come there today, plus we have modern day roads. Thousands of years ago the ways to get to the pyramid was different and there was probably many shortcuts, but we now have an idea of which way the ancients could have taken to shape or build a pyramid. Now, the Ravne and Sun pyramid connection hypothesis seems very logical.

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The way from Ravne and directly to Sun pyramid’s access ramp. Total lenght is circa 3,6 kilometers.
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The way from Ravne and directly to the Sun pyramid’s acces ramp. Total lenght is circa 5,3 kilometers.

If we are going to follow the original history, then there are many cultural layers at the pyramids in Visoko, stretching from Neolithic times to the Ottoman Empire. There are cultures that have used the different structures for their own good. The access ramp has been used in later stages, and there can be found many different interesting things. In 2013, the volunteers of the foundation Archaeological Park: Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun, opened a experimental test trench on the western side of the pyramid. The trench was 49 meters from Stari Grad (Royal fortress) and it was found some interesting artefacts that appeared to be circa from the 15th century. They found a bronze handle, which was in good condition, and possibly a door lock (Archaeological report from 2013).

Marked trench before the excavations.
The bronze handle.

So, the foundation opened one small trench and already found two remarkable artefacts. I am sure that the whole ramp and pyramid is filled with many different artefacts from different periods in time, it only needs more archaeological excavations. Other artefacts from the surface of the ramp has also been retrieved and many of the blocks has a very nice texture to them and it appears that the material is sandstone. However, these things still needs a lot of excavations in order to conclude anything.

Block from the access ramp of the Sun pyramid.
Blocks from the access ramp of the Sun pyramid.

We have now looked into the access ramps to the Bosnian pyramids and tried to explain its importance to the structural stability and in a case of building a pyramid. In addition, in the case of the structural stability, we have looked into the shapes of the blocks on the different pyramids and what kind of materials the ancients built or shaped the pyramids of. We have also tried to explain why the different shapes to the blocks are important for structural stability and that the ancients knew very well about the tectonic activity in the area and that this could have caused earthquakes. The ramps to the Bosnian pyramids needs more excavations to conclude the different materials that was used and to see if the ramp is a shaped hill or a man made structure with natural materials being used. Like always, more research to this subject is needed.

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My name is Djani Behram. I am a researcher of ancient places around the world, mostly in Bosnia and Herzegovina. I am also the ambassador of the Archaeological Park: Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation and I have volunteered at the Bosnian pyramids in 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015 and now 2016. I have good experience about the Bosnian pyramids and archaeological sites in the region. In addition, I own the biggest site about the Bosnian pyramids, which is posting news and pictures almost every day. I also own a YouTube site, called TheBIHLover, which is posting a video almost every Wednesday. If you have any questions or feedback, please send it to my email:

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Discussing the Ravne Tunnels and the Mine Hypothesis

Since the Ravne tunnels were discovered in 2006, by Dr. Semir Osmanagich, there has been many discussions regarding of what these tunnels were used for. Many have pointed out that there is, in fact, a human-intervention in the tunnels, for instance, the dry walls that can be found in Ravne. However, many people argue that these tunnels are only some mines that have been used before the discovery of the pyramids, for instance, in the Middle Ages. Some have pointed out that the tunnels were used by JNA (Yugoslav National Army) in more modern times. It is time to unwrap these different hypothesis, so we can have a better view of the Ravne tunnels.

The entrance to the Ravne tunnels in 2015.

To unwrap the different hypothesis, we need to understand how the tunnels are. Before the excavations in 2006, the entrance to the Ravne tunnels were almost filled to the top; it looked like a hole in a hill. People were calling this ‘’cave’’ – nothing man made with it.

Entrance to Ravne
The entrance to the Ravne tunnels in 2006. Picture by Amer Smailbegovic.

However, after the excavations started, you could clearly see that there were two types of materials. The first one was conglomerate, which are the walls of the tunnels, while the second is a more like a sandish material from the riverbeds. The second material is more ‘’softer’’ than the conglomerate. The colours are also different, the colour from the conglomerate is more like a gray colour, while the other material is more brownish. This difference can clearly be seen if you compare the materials.

Two of the main tunnels. The filling material is in the middle, while the walls, which are the conglomerate, are on the sides. Picture taken in 2011.

The brownish material is most probably the filling material that has been used by someone in the past, after someone digged out the conglomerate. Many people that think that the tunnels are natural have one common hypothesis. If we ask them, the filling-material is the conglomerate that has fallen down over the years. This hypothesis is most likely wrong, because you can clearly see two different materials in the tunnels. If the brownish material was in fact the conglomerate that had fallen over the years, then the filling material would be very different and would not have had a sandish consistency.

One of the main tunnels which is leading to the Bosnian Sun pyramid. Again you see the brownish filling material in the middle and the conglomerate on the sides. There is only some centimeters of space over the filling material. Picture taken in 2015.

In addition, there has also been found many different dry walls, which of course are man made. These dry walls are constructed differently than the conglomerate and are very important. The dry walls do not only work as walls for the tunnels, but they also block different side tunnels, which is very significant, which I will explain later in this article.

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One of the dry walls that can be found in the Ravne tunnels.

There has also been found many different megaliths in the tunnels, and they are different sizes. The investigations are showing that these megaliths are important for the energetic aspect in the tunnels, which can not be ignored. Reports are showing that people feel good after their visit to for instance the K2 megalith. I will also address the megaliths later in this article.

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Megalith K2.

Before we can start with the hypothesis, we first need to address that the tunnels in Ravne are not natural. The tunnels have geological features, for instance, the conglomerate, which are the walls of the tunnels. In addition, the filling material is also natural, but it was placed in the tunnels by some unknown civilization or culture. The dry walls are man made and some of the megaliths in Ravne have some human-intervention, by reshaping or making them from scratch. If we study some of the tunnels, then we can clearly see a circular formation. Nature does not make circular formations, especially not for many meters at once.

One of the side tunnels in Ravne. Notice the circular formation.
One of the side tunnels in Ravne. Notice the circular formation of the tunnel.

Now we have briefly looked into the Ravne tunnels and how they are and what they contain, and we can start addressing the different hypothesis regarding the tunnels. First of all, many are arguing that the Ravne tunnels are not historic at all, because in their point of view, the workers of the Archaeological Park: Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation are creating all the tunnels by digging them. This is not true. What the foundation is doing, is that they are following the filling material’s path and they are taking out this filling material and enlarging the existing tunnels by also taking out the conglomerate, which are the walls of the tunnels. They are doing this because they want people to walk normally in the tunnels without needing to crab. In addition, the volunteers and workers of the foundation are often checking for artefacts from the filling material or conglomerate either inside the tunnels or outside. Sometimes the foundation is finding tunnels without the filling materials, and this is evidence of human intervention. Furthermore, some tunnels are not touched by the foundation and are that way today like they were when they first got discovered and a good example of this is the water channels in Ravne. Nevertheless, the foundation is not creating tunnels; they are only following the filling material.

One of the water channels in Ravne. Notice the circular formation..jpg
One of the water channels in Ravne. Notice the circular formation. Picture taken by Jock Doubleday.

Like I said before, many people think that the Yugoslav Army is involved in these tunnels, most likely as a weapon storage. This is not true. There are numerous local people that have stated that these tunnels does not have any military involvement, However, there are reports that kids went into these tunnels sometimes, but they could only enter for some meters. In addition, no army would have stored their weapons in cramped tunnels, that would be dangerous and ineffective in a case of war. Someone has even suggested that the tunnels were shelters for the people who lived in the area either in the second world war or the war in the 1990s. Again, there are no reports of such by the locals and I am sure that the locals would have known about this, especially in a small town as Visoko. In addition, the tunnels were cramped when they first got discovered and therefore they did not serve as good shelter conditions at that time. In summary, there are no military involvement in the Ravne tunnels.

The Ravne tunnels do not have any military involvement. Notice the circular formation of the tunnel.

The biggest hypothesis of the people that are against the project of the Bosnian pyramids, is that the tunnels were just some kind of mines, probably gold mines, likely from the Middle Ages. If this is the case, then we can ask ourselves, what the miners could have found in the tunnels. In the Middle Ages, gold was very important for the people, because you could use that to trade more food or some luxurious goods. There has not been found any gold in the tunnels nor other rich materials like silver or other materials that were important in the Middle Ages. Furthermore, the gold mine hypothesis does not explain the filling material in the tunnels. Other gold mines are open, not closed with the filling material. Iron was also very important in the Middle Ages, but there is almost no clean iron to be found in the Ravne tunnels. However, there are materials that can be found in the tunnels is, for instance, quartz crystal, muscovite, sandstone, clay etc. These are the materials that people did not use often in the Middle Ages. Now other argue that the tunnels could have been used as mines in a later period, but that is also unlikely, because people were using more ‘’modern’’ materials like coal, and there has not been found any coal in the Ravne tunnels.

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One of the Ravne tunnels.

However, in 2012, volunteers made a discovery in a new section of the Ravne tunnels. They discovered an oil lamp inside one of the partially empty side tunnels (not the main tunnels). It looks like the oil lamp is from the 17th century, but it could be much older (Archaeological report from 2012). This could be a discovery that could finally bring a light to the hypothesis that the Ravne tunnels were mines in the Middle Ages or a mine after the Middle Ages and in more ‘’modern’’ times. However, I am not quite sure about that. We can probably say that the Ravne tunnels have multiple entrances. Recently the Ravne 2 entrance has been discovered and it looks like there are tunnels under the original Ravne entrance. In my opinion, there are probably many more entrances to the Ravne tunnels and the entrances are going into the same tunnels, which originally went under the Bosnian Sun pyramid before the filling material. The Ravne 2 entrance is only proving that there are more entrances to Ravne.

Oil lamp
The oil lamp that was discovered in one of the side tunnels in Ravne. Artefact discovered in 2012.
The Ravne 2 entrance.

It is highly unlikely that whoever went into the tunnels and left an oil lamp, went from the original entrance. If we take the hypothesis into consideration, that there are many different entrances to the tunnels, yet to be discovered, then this means that someone went into the tunnels from a different entrance. If someone went into the tunnels from the original entrance to Ravne, then the main entrance would have been open when it got discovered. Why someone in the past went into the tunnels is a difficult question to answer but maybe the person or group thought that there was gold or some treasures inside, but left the tunnels when they found out that there were no ‘’good’’ materials. The oil lamp could have just been left there, while they were filling the entrance they found, so that no one could have entered again, because they perhaps thought that it would be dangerous to continue for some unknown reasons. How those who went into the tunnels knew about Ravne in the first place is also a difficult question to answer, and some are connecting it with different legends. If we take the multiple entrances to Ravne hypothesis into consideration, then the different entrances could in fact look like the main entrance to Ravne which was discovered in 2006. So they opened that tunnel in hope for finding good materials or treasures, but like I wrote, they left when they found out that there were none of the above. All in all, the filling material and the oil lamp strengthen the hypothesis that there are more entrances to the tunnels, which is a big step in order to understand the construction of the Ravne tunnels.

Volunteers trying to find artefacts from the filling material.

Some argue that the dry walls are a good example of mines, because they are easy to build and hold the walls of the tunnels in a stable way. There are some examples of this, like some of the mines i Alps. However, the dry walls at the Ravne tunnels are blocking the side tunnels and behind those dry walls there are more brownish materials, which is the filling material. This only raises more questions. Either the dry walls or the filling material came first, or they were made at the same time by some civilization or culture. Again, this only proves that the tunnels were not mines, but a complex of different tunnels. Mines do not have many different side tunnels at the same place, like we can see in Ravn, and often there are three or four side tunnels only by some meters of distance. The dry walls are blocking the side tunnels by half, while the filling material is blocking almost the entire side tunnel. No matter how deep you go into the tunnels, you will still find many different dry walls. Based on all this, the dry walls were probably not some kind of walls from the Middle Ages or more modern times.

One of the mines in the Alps.
Typical side tunnel in Ravne. A dry wall blocking the side tunnel and behind that there is the filling material. On the sides you have the conglomerate which are the walls of the Ravne tunnels.

Like I said before, we can not ignore the different energies in the tunnels, especially when it comes to the healing aspect. Many people have felt better after visiting the Ravne tunnels, where there has for instance been blood pressure normalization. People that do not believe in energies have also felt that they breath much better in the Ravne unnels, than outside. This seems totally illogical to the mine-hypothesis. If you go deeper into the mines, then you would not breath as good as at the entrance to the mine. However in the Ravne tunnels, as deep as you go, the better you breath. The healing aspect is for many a subjective opinion, however, there has been many testing with different scientific instruments where they have reached to conclusions that there are energy fields in the Ravne tunnels. Because of the energy fields both on the Bosnian Sun pyramid and Ravne, we can say that they are connected with each other. There is even more, but I do not want to get any deeper in this article, but please read more here: Healing energy in the Ravne tunnelsthe phenomenon of resonance in the Labyrinth of Ravne and Ravne energy measurements.

Energy investigations at megalith K1.

When you have subjective and objective evidence of the energies in the tunnels, then you have scientific results. No matter if you are a believer or non believer of the healing aspects, you can not ignore the measurements that has been done in the Ravne tunnels. Mines do not have these kind of energies, so we can say that the Ravne tunnels are totally different than normal mines in this case.

One of many side tunnels and water channels in Ravne. Picture by Jock Doubleday.

We can ask ourselves how the Ravne tunnels are connected to the Bosnian pyramids. The Bosnian Sun pyramid is most likely connected to the Ravne tunnels. If we examine the conglomerate and the blocks on the Sun pyramid, then we can see that the materials are very similar. The blocks on the Bosnian Sun pyramid are mixed with conglomerate and clay.

The conglomerate in the Ravne tunnels. Picture by Jock Doubleday.
One of the blocks on the Bosnian Sun pyramid.

There are different hypothesis that try to connect the Ravne tunnels and the Bosnian pyramids. Some think that there are many civilizations and cultures involved, others think that there is only one civilization, while others are talking about extraterrestrial involvement. In my opinion, the Sun pyamid and Ravne tunnels are in big way connected. Those who built the pyramids digged also out the tunnels and used those materials to build the Bosnian Sun pyramid (some say also that they shaped a hill in to a pyramid). So back in ancient times, the Ravne tunnels were used because the tunnels had good materials to build a structure. In addition, they also made the tunnels all the way to the Bosnian Sun pyramid, perhaps because of better energy or a easier entrance to the pyramid. After that civilization came another civilization that build the other pyramids in the area and of course used the Ravne tunnels. Later came another civilization or culture and filled all the tunnels for some unknown reason. Of course, this is just a hypothesis, but it is very common hypothesis regarding the builders of the Bosnian pyramids. However, the ‘’correct’’ answer could be something totally different. In addition, if we are going to strengthen the connection between the Sun pyramid and Ravne, then we just need to look on some of the other pyramids in Visoko. For instance, the materials on the Bosnian Moon pyramid are different; they are mostly clay and sandstone. In both cases we can find clay everywhere on the different structures and that is because of the structural stability.

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The Ravne tunnels.

The megaliths are also important for understanding the Ravne tunnels and proving that those tunnels are not mines that were used in more modern times. On one of the megaliths in the tunnels, you can find runic symbols, which were used from the 2nd century CE and these can mostly be found in Northern-Europe. Miners would probably not have used that megalith to write things on it, because it is a too hard process. In fact, no miners would have written symbols on a stone, especially not in the high or late Middle Ages. In addition, some argue that those symbols are not the runic alphabet, but some other ancient alphabet that has been used in the region, but it surely needs more research. How the megaliths, like K2, K1, K5 etc. came into the labyrinth in the first place, is an another discussion. Some argue that the megaliths were built and shaped by some culture before a big flood that covered the megaliths with the conglomerate. One thing is certain, it is very hard to carry these megaliths because their weight is in many tons, so the megaliths were perhaps shaped inside the tunnels or were shaped before the conglomerate. None of these hypothesis are certain and the megaliths needs more research. If we take the mine hypothesis and connect it with the megaliths then we would see that it does not make any sense. The megaliths would probably have been destroyed to take out as much materials as possible or because the megaliths were in the way for the miners. However, these megaliths has not been destroyed and some megaliths in the beginning of the tunnels are a great example of that, because they still have a great form, like someone just left they there, still after this much time.

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The Runic symbols on one of the megaliths.
Megaliths at the beginning of the Ravne tunnels.

There are also no records of mines in the Ravne area in the medieval period or modern times. If there were mines, then this would have been documented somewhere. However, there has not been conducted any research at the Ravne area before the Archaeological Park: Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation started excavating the tunnels. Just as I wrote before, people were calling this cave and in their minds there was nothing historic with it. By all this, we can say that the Ravne tunnels are ancient, because these tunnels has most likely been unknown for us for a long time and it seems like there has not been much activity in the Ravne area for hundreds or thousands of years. We also have untouched tunnels that have a circular shape and like I wrote previously in this article, must have been shaped by a culture or civilization. Imagine these tunnels being at the same place with no contact with humans for thousands of years.

The ”Rabbit hole” tunnel. Notice the circular formation.

Many miners have visited the Ravne tunnels before and they have stated that they have not seen anything like these tunnels before. They are putting their finger especially on the oxygen levels in the tunnels. No matter how deep you go, you will breath even better, like I wrote before. The materials do not look like the materials the Bosnian miners are mining in ordinary mines in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The miners are often mining for coal, however, like I wrote before, there are no coal in the Ravne tunnels. However, we still need to remember that the mining techniques are different from before, but the oxygen levels in Ravne are significant from other mines, no matter which period those mines were used (Oxygen levels in Ravne). With the miners statements, we may conclude that the Ravne tunnels are not mines from a modern period.

One last point that could probably end the gold mine hypothesis is to study the main entrance to different gold mines around the world. The entrance could determine. in a good way, if this is a some kind of gold mine. I have gathered two pictures from the internet from two gold mines. One from USA and one from Australia. The first one is the Idaho Springs Gold Mine, which has a clear entrance to the mine and was in use for a long time from 1893. In addition, there is a mine mill where workers worked with the gold that came from those mines.

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Entrance to the Idaho Springs gold mine.

The second mine is in Arltunga and was one of the first gold mines in Australia. In addition, there is a town that was built in 1887 because of the gold rush at that time. The gold mine has a rectangular entrance and can be entered by someone. In addition, the mine is open and has a clear entrance.

Entrance to the Arltunga gold mine.

Let us try to compare these two mines with the Ravne tunnel entrance. If we study the Ravne tunnel entrance from 2006, we will see that it does not look similar to the other gold mine entrances at all. The filling material is filled almost to the top of the main walls and the ground level of the entrance is very narrowed.

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The Ravne tunnels entrance in 2006 after some excavations. Does this look like a gold mine to you?

If this was a gold mine, then the ground level would be bigger, mainly because of the wheelbarrows. In addition, the filling material does not make any sense for a gold mine and I have addressed this before in the article. Furthermore, there are no traces of villages near the Ravne tunnel area (not talking about the Visoko area) and there has not been found any artefacts of such either. In addition, there has not been found any gold inside the Ravne tunnels, which normally would have been found in a gold mine. Based on this, we may perhaps conclude that the Ravne tunnels were not gold mines.

The Bosnian Sun pyramid and Visoko in the 1970s.

If we look deeper into the the connection between the Sun pyramid and Ravne tunnels hypothesis, then we can also speculate around the purpose of the Ravne tunnels. The Ravne tunnels could have been used as ancient mines. Mines for the conglomerate that they were using to build the Bosnian Sun pyramid. In addition, there is a lot of quartz crystal in the tunnels, that also was used in the building of the Bosnian Sun pyramid, and it was likely used for the energetic purposes. The oxygen levels are great, which meant excellent breathing conditions. However, how they made so good oxygen levels in all tunnels is still a mystery. They could have used some kind of ancient technology. Not the technology we use today, but their own technology which they combined with nature, because those who were digging out the Ravne tunnels and building or reshaping the Sun pyramid were deeply connected with nature, and this natural ancient technology we can still feel today if we visit the Ravne tunnels.

One of the Ravne tunnels. Picture by Haris Delibasic.

Furthermore, there are megaliths that are making energetic vibrations that are energizing the workers and healing for instance pain in their body. All this makes the mining process more efficiently. Not only that, but you have tunnels that are going directly under the Bosnian Sun pyramid. If we are going to follow the carbon datings, then the Ravne tunnels and the Sun pyramid are built in the same time period, which is circa 29 000-34 000 years ago (Bosnian Sun pyramid over 29 000 years old). The ancient mine hypothesis is still speculation and the tunnels could have been used for something totally different. However, there is a strong connection between the conglomerate in Ravne and the Sun pyramid, which strengthen this hypothesis. The tunnels were perhaps filled with the filling material because of the easy access to the Bosnian Sun pyramid, which may mean that the tunnels inside the Bosnian Sun pyramid hide some big secrets. No matter what people think about the Ravne tunnels, the filling material is still a very big mystery. The only way we will know more about this, is by excavating and researching even more.

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Tunnels under the Bosnian Sun pyramid.

Another thing that makes the medieval hypothesis unlikely is the lack of artefacts from medieval period that has been found in the Ravne tunnels. If the Ravne tunnels were mines from the medieval period, then we would see a lot of more artefacts from that time, but we do not have any artefacts, other than the oil lamp, which I have addressed before and concluded that that there are different entrances that to go to Ravne tunnels. The medieval period ended circa 500 years ago, and these kind of artefacts do not disappear that fast by some kind decomposition, because they are build from different metals, with good quality. However, the Ravne tunnels could be prehistoric. Like I stated before, there has probably been some civilizations or cultures which were active in the tunnels. We have probably two civilizations or cultures. Those who digged out the conglomerate for the Bosnian Sun pyramid and those that filled all those tunnels. Those who filled all those tunnels or lived in the area before the tunnels were filled, could have removed the artefacts perhaps for their own use or they got destroyed. Destroying artefacts is not unusual at all. Romans did that very frequently. One example is the Temple of Jerusalem, which got destroyed by the Romans in 70 CE in the siege of Jerusalem (Temple in Jerusalem). The culture or civilization that perhaps removed the artefacts and destroyed them, wanted to front their own things, and the artefacts could only have gotten in the way of that, because the builders of the pyramid and/or the diggers of the Ravne tunnels were superior. Then those who destroyed the artefacts would have been even more superior than them and they would control the region and the people, because they would now be the most powerful.  

800px-Francesco_Hayez_017 Ødeleggelse av templet
The destroyment of the Tempe in Jerusalem. Painting by Francesco Hayez.

However, the artefacts of those that were involved in the building of the pyramids or those that filled the tunnels could be in front of our noses. There has often been found many different stones that fit perfectly in to your hand and that can be used for some kind of construction. We need to remember that those builders who built or reshaped the Bosnian Sun pyramids were living with the nature and things that look like stones to us, could likely be artefacts of those who came before us – the ancients. However, we need to keep in mind that many of these artefacs were removed or destroyed after other cultures came and perhaps a good example of this is those who filled the tunnels with the filling material. I am not saying all this to make artefacts out of stones, but when there are many different stones that has the same size, form and colour, then these could be some kind of tool. Tools that has been stones before, but reshaped to be tools of the culture of civilization that lived in the area. If we keep researching and go deeper into the tunnels, then I am sure that we will find more interesting artefacts. If you want to know more about the artefacts of the Bosnian pyraids, please read my article: The mysterious artefacts of the Bosnian pyramids.

One of the possible tools that could have been used by the builders of the pyramids. Picture by Bob Amsterdam.
Perfectly shaped artefact from the Ravne tunnels.
Possible tool artefacts from the Ravne tunnels.

We have now discussed the Ravne tunnels and some of its most popular hypothesis. We have argued that the Ravne tunnels are not weapon storages and probably not some kind of mines from medieval period, because of the filling material, dry walls blocking the side tunnels, runic symbols, no artefacts from medieval period or modern time; other than a oil lamp which probably is from those who entered the tunnels from another entrance and lack of materials that were important, for instance, gold and iron. In addition, we have discussed the possibility of the tunnels being an ancient mine which could have been used to take out the conglomerate for the building of the Bosnian Sun pyramid. The research and excavations needs to be continued, but at least we have a better understanding of the Ravne tunnels and its hypothesis.

* * *

My name is Djani Behram. I am a researcher of ancient places around the world, mostly in Bosnia and Herzegovina. I am also the ambassador of the Archaeological Park: Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation and I have volunteered at the Bosnian pyramids in 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015 and now 2016. I have good experience about the Bosnian pyramids and archaeological sites in the region. In addition, I own the biggest site about the Bosnian pyramids, which is posting news and pictures almost every day. I also own a YouTube site, called TheBIHLover, which is posting a video almost every Wednesday. If you have any questions or feedback, please send it to my email:

My Facebook page:

My YouTube channel:

Bosnian pyramids official website:

Further research:

Reports about the Bosnian pyramids

Discovery of New Prehistoric Underground Tunnels at Bosnian Pyramids

Resonance in the Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids


Misteriozni Bosanski Obelisk

Napisao sam par članaka o bosanskim piramidama i njihovim tajnama. Članci su vrlo dobro pregledavani i bio sam vrlo sretan u mojim nastojanjima pisati o Bosanskim piramidama. Bosna i Hercegovina je puna vrlo tajanstvenih mjesta, ima sve, od kamenih  sfera i piramida do dvoraca i starih spomenika.. Tu su i mnoge nepoznate arheološke strukture i nalazišta  a jedna od njih je i bosanski obelisk, koji se nalazi u Bakićima,  malome  selu u blizini  Olova, malog bosanskog gradića. Obelisk je gotovo  nepoznat u Bosni i Hercegovini, i  mnogi nisu ni čuli o njemu. Na internetu možete naći dva ili tri dobra  članka o obelisku i to je to. Prava je  šteta što je  ovaj obelisk takva nepoznanica,  pa ću evo ja  pisati o tome u ovome članku.

Lokacija Olova u Bosni i Hercegovini.

Kada sam stigao u Visoko 2014 godine, u Bosnu i Hercegovinu, volontirao sam za Fondaciju Arheološki park: Bosanska piramida Sunca, te sam  odlučio  posjetiti Obelisk s nekoliko drugih volontera i turista. Naš vodič nas je vozio oko sat vremena do lokacije . Dok smo se vozili do odredišta mogli smo uživati u prirodnim ljepotama  Bosne i Hercegovine, šume svuda. Na kraju smo došli s velikom dozom uzbuđenja do sela gdje se obelisk nalazi. Nakon što je naš vodič parkirao kombi, krenuli smo pješice oko 15 minuta. Cesta je bila vrlo blatna i vodila nas je u šumu.

Napokon smo u daljini ugledali obelisk. Kako smo se približavali,  obelisk je postajao sve veći. Bio sam izvan sebe od uzbuđenja ali i svi ostali, te su svi prionuli slikati se pokraj obeliska. Obelisk je četiri metra visok i pravokutnog oblika. Na svakoj strani obeliska možete vidjeti simbole, koji  vjerojatno predstavljaju spirale , grožđe, cvijeće i neke vrste životinje. Na vrhu obeliska možete vidjeti savršeno oblikovanu piramidu sa sve četiri strane. I ne samo to, na vrhu piramide možete vidjeti kamenu kuglu, koja je djelomično uništena.

Bosanski Obelisk u selu Bakici.
Olovo 2
Piramida i kugla plasirana na vrhu Obeliska.

Originalni plan je bio napraviti kvalitetne fotografije i napraviti video o obelisku, pa kada se vratim u Norvešku da napravim, to sam i učinio, ovdje ga možete pogledati: Obelisk video.

Nakon što sam fotografirao obelisk dovoljno puta, bilo je vrijeme da se vratim u Visoko, ali ostali su turisti željeli meditirati oko obeliska. Neki turisti, naš vodič i ja smo se vratili u minibus, dok su drugi započeli meditaciju.

Dok smo  sjedili  i čekali  turiste da  završe  svoju meditaciju, ja sam razgledavao  selo. Tu se nalaze samo tri kuće sa  velikim  poljoprivrednim zemljistima. Jedna blatnjava  cesta što vodi  iz sela u šumu do obeliska. Osim toga, ima  tu i nekoliko manjih spomenika za ljude poginule braneći domovinu u nedavnom ratu.  No što je meni bilo na pameti u tom trenu je bila spoznaja;  kakva šteta da takav misteriozni spomenik nije dobio nikakakvo priznanje koje zaslužuje, jer je kao takav izvanredna atrakcija i može mnogo značiti za selo, pogotovo s financijskog aspekta.

Olovo 6
Jos jedna slika Obeliska.

Konačno su  turisti završili meditaciju i bilo je vrijeme da se vratimo u Visoko. Sada je već prošlo dvije godine, i zato je vrijeme za napraviti dvije stvari, pokušati objasniti Obelisk,  i dati Olovu ovom obelisku priznanje koje zaslužuje.

Počnimo s originalnom povijesti obeliska. Prema povjesničarima, ovaj obelisk je izgrađen u 14. stoljeću od strane prvog kralja Bosne, Tvrtka  I Kotromanić. Tvrtko I se smatra jednim od najvećih kraljeva u balkanskoj-regiji  i bio je veliki ratnik koji je okupirao mnoge dijelove  Bosansko-Hercegovačke  regiji, a posebno i  Hrvatske i Srbije. Nitko ne zna zašto je Tvrtko I sam odlučio izgraditi Obelisk u sredini šume u Bakićima , ali postoji zanimljiva legenda u vezi Tvrtka I i obeliska. Prema legendi  Tvrtko I je otišao sam u lov na divlje svinje, te je bio ranjen. Obelisk je sagrađen na istom mjestu  gdje su ga svinje ranile, no on im je ipak  želio odati poštovanj (postoje različite verzije legende, ali ova verzija je najpoznatija.

Tvrtko I
Tvrtko I, prvi kralj Bosne i Hercegovine.

Legenda je interesatna, ali mislim da nije baš istinita. To se ne čini baš logično da je Tvrtko I .izgradio obelisk jer je bio ranjen od  divlje svinje. Također se moramo sjetiti da je 14. stoljeće bilo vrijeme jakih turbulencija u Europi. Bilo je mnogo ratova i Crna smrt je  ubila mnogo ljudi, što je rezultiralo velikom katastrofom za mnoge obitelji i zemlje. Prema tome  jednostavno nije imalo smisla koristiti resurse na obelisk na divlje svinje. Mnogi govore da mala životinja na obelisku  predstavlja divlju svinju, ali ja se ne slažem. Mala slika također može biti neka druga životinja, možda je ptica, lisica itd. Obelisk je u sredini šume, gdje možete naći sve vrste životinja; to ne mora biti vepar. Osim toga, možemo se pitati zašto bih  Tvrtko I koristio  toliko vremena i napora na ovaj obelisk, samo za divlje svinje. U zaključku, Tvrtko I je vjerojatno lovio na tom podrućju, ali on sigurno  nije izgradio  četiri metra visok obelisk samo za divlje svinje ili neke druge životinje.

Olovo 3
Figura na Obelisku.

Kao što smo upravo vidjeli, legenda vjerojatno nije istina, ali obelisk je  morao predstavljati nešto, to je sigurno. Obelisk je vrlo poseban i ništa  slično ovome  obelisku  u Bosni nije nađeno, pogotovo ne s piramidom  i kamenom kuglom  na vrhu. I ne samo to, nego Obelisk je vrlo simetričan. Možemo se pitati tko je i gdje  dobio inspiraciju za piramide i kamene kugle. Oko 50 kilometara od Obeliska, možemo naći grad Visoko i bosanske piramide. 1377. godine  Tvrtko I je okrunjen kraljem Bosne u blizini Visokog, starog grada, koji se nalazi na vrhu Bosanske piramide Sunca. Nakon toga je živio u Visokom dugo vremena. Bosanska piramida Sunca ima gotovo savršen oblik piramide i Tvrtko je mogao sam dobiti  inspiraciju za obelisk od bosanske piramide Sunca. Osim toga, mnoge  legende govore da je Tvrtko I bio okrunjen i živjeo na brdu oblika piramide, a sada je u 2005. godini otkriveno da je piramidalno brdo, navedeno i u legendi uistinu piramida.

Stari Grad Visoki.
Bosanska piramida Sunca.

Oko 80 kilometara od obeliska, možete pronaći bosanske kamene kugle u Zavidovićima, a tu su i deseci ostalih kamenih kugli. Tvrtko I je možda i dobio inspiraciju i od kamenih kugli u Zavidovićima. Osim toga, područje se nalazi na vrhu piramide od obeliska  a to može predstavljati simbolički  svoje kraljevstvo, jer kugla ima vrlo poseban geometrijski oblik i može simbolizirati mnoge stvari, na primjer, jedinstvo. Veliki dio Bosne je bio ujedinjen  u vrijeme Tvrtka I. Osim toga, tu su i brojni stećci s trokutastim oblicima ugraviranim na površinu, osobito oko Visokog. Obelisk Tvrtka  I je sadržava  pravu piramidu, a ne samo neke gravure. Sada smo možda zaključili  gdje je Tvrtko mogao dobiti inspiraciju za piramide i kugle za njegov obelisk.

Kamena sfera u Zavidovicima.
Olovo 7
Kamena sfera na Obelisku.

Kao što sam već prije razjasnio, gravura piramide  može se naći u Visoko regiji  ali obelisk je jedinstven jer sadrži pravilnu piramidu sa sve četiri strane. Za jačanje hipoteze da je Tvrtko sam dobio inspiraciju za gradnju piramide iz Bosanske piramide Sunca, ipak moramo gledati okolo na neke druge stećke. Mnogi od njih imaju spirale  trokutastog oblika i grafike koje stvarno izgledaju kao piramida, a ne neki trokut. Po mom mišljenju, mnoge od njih su inspirirane Bosanskom piramidom Sunca, čak i ako oni nisu znali ništa o piramidama u to vrijeme. Sjeverna strana bosanske piramide Sunca je vrlo fascinantna i posebna i ne čudi da su  oni koji su uklesali  piramide na različite stećke osjetili potrebu da to prikažu u svome radu. Drugi primjer je piramida koja je pronađena samo nekoliko kilometara od Bosanske piramide Sunca u tom području ” Okolište. ” Sve te stvari mogu biti tragovi bosanskih piramida.

Arheoloski artefakt – piramida.
Pyramid 1
Stecak sa trokutastim simbolima.
Pyramid 2
Stecak sa trokutastim sibolom.
Jos jedan stecak sa trokutastim simbolom.
Pyramid 3
Troutasti simbol.

Tu su i mnogobrojni  simboli na Obelisku, i ja ću razjasniti  svaki od njih. Prvi simbol je grožđe a grožđe je jedno vrlo važno voće u Bosni i Hercegovini. Od grožđa, možete napraviti vino i druge vrste hrane. Klima za grožđe je savršena u ovoj regiji Bosne i Hercegovine.

Drugi simbol je cvijet. Postoje dvije različite vrste cvijeća na obelisku.  Nema ništa neobično oko tog cvijeća,  jer ono se može naći i na drugim spomenicima kao što su stećci oko Bosne i Hercegovina. Cvijeće može simbolizirati različite stvari, na primjer, jedinstvo, ambicije itd.

Razliciti cvjetovi u sredini, s grozdovima i spiralama sa strane.

Obelisk sadrži mnoge spirale. Te spirale mogu se naći također i na drugim  stećcima u Bosni i Hercegovini, a  vrlo su  česte u ovoj  regiji. Spirale moglo predstavljati galaksiju, jer one stvarno izgledaju kao galaksija Mliječni put, ali spirala takodjer može, predstavljati i nešto  drugo. Mislim da je Tvrtko I dobio sam inspiraciju od drugih stećaka u Bosni i Hercegovini i odlučio staviti ove simbole i na svoj obelisk. Ako spirale na drugim stećcima preko balkanske-regije su naš Mliječni put, onda oni koji su ih izgradili su imali dobro znanje o astronomiji. Nadalje, noćno nebo u Bosni i Hercegovini je lijepo i vrlo bistro, pogotovo u ljetnim mjesecima, što je pogodovalo našim pradjedovima da detaljno vide Mliječni put.

Olovo 1
Spirale na Obelisku.
Galaksija, mljecna staza.

Posljednji simbol na obelisku je figura, za koju mnogi misle da je divlja svinja no ja sam se savjetovao o tome i zaključio da to ne treba da bude divlja svinja, jer je legenda o ranjavanju Tvrtka I i svrhe da je obelisk za svinje, vrlo nelogična. Međutim, to može biti neka druga životinja, vjerojatno životinja koja se takodjer može naći u Bosni i Hercegovini.

Vrlo je teško odgovoriti zašto je Tvrtko I sagradio ovaj obelisk. Ja osobno vjerujem da ima neke veze s bosanskim piramidama, jer je na vrhu  savršeno oblikovana piramida, ispod je vrlo precizan pravokutni  dio obeliska i iznad piramide je kugla. Geometrijski oblik piramide i kugle je svetinja, pogotovo ako govorimo o drevnim mjestima širom svijeta.

Možda je obelisk dio nekog energetskog sustava, kao i bosanskih piramida. Bilo bi možda  dobro da se obelisk  snimi s različitim znanstvenih instrumentima i provjeri da li postoji energetsko polje koje dolazi iz obeliska. Ili je ipak obelisk jednostavno obićan stećak  kojega je  Tvrtko I podignuo za Bosanace. Obelisk treba više istraživanja, no možda nikada nećemo zasigurno znati zašto je Tvrtko sam sagradio ovaj zadivljujući obelisk u sredini šume u Bakićima.

Olovo 5
Bosanski Obelisk.

Sada smo osmatrali bosanski obelisk u selu Bakići. Obelisk je vrlo zanimljiv i tajanstven, a sada možemo samo nagađati kakvu je svrhu obelisk služio. Legenda o obelisku vjerojatno nije istinita, prije svega što se ne čini logičnom. Osim toga, Obelisk također moze imati neke veze s bosanskim piramidama i kamenim kuglama u Zavidovićima. Mozda nikada necemo saznati pravu svrhu obeliska  ali ga  je nužno istražiti dalje, što ujedno može biti i prava turistička atrakcija , te može pomoći Olovu i Bakićima  da budu na karti  Bosne i Hercegovine i svijeta, eto vjerujem da je ovaj članak dobar početak.

Moje ime je Đani Behram. Ja sam istraživač drevnih mjesta širom svijeta, pretežno u Bosni i Hercegovini. Ja sam također ambasador Fondacije Arheološki Park: Bosanska Piramida Sunca i volontirao sam na bosanskim piramidama u 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015.godini  i dolazim i ove 2016. Imam dobro iskustvo o bosanskim piramidama i arheološkim nalazištima u regiji. Osim toga, kreator sam najveće stranice o bosanskim piramidama, na  kojima se objavljuju vijesti i fotografije gotovo svaki dan. Također sam kreator YouTube stranice, pod nazivom TheBIHLover, na kojoj objavljujem video zapise  gotovo svake srijede. Ako imate bilo kakvih pitanja ili komentara, molim vas pošaljite ga na moj e-mail:

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Moj YouTube kanal:

Koraljka T. Chivers je prevela ovaj tekst na Hrvatski jezik, ja se zahvaljujem. 

The Mysterious Bosnian Obelisk

I have written a couple of articles about the Bosnian pyramids and their mysteries. The articles got many views and I was very happy with my efforts when it comes to the Bosnian pyramid articles. Bosnia and Herzegovina is a very mysterious place, having everything from stone spheres and pyramids to castles and ancient monuments. There are also many unknown archaeological structures and places in the country, and one of them is the Bosnian Obelisk, which can be found in Bakici, which is a very small village in Olovo, a small Bosnian town. The Obelisk is unknown in Bosnia and Herzegovina and not many know about it. On the internet, you can find two or three good articles about the Obelisk, but nothing else. It is a real shame that this Obelisk is so unknown, and therefore I am going to write about it in this article.

The location of Olovo in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

When I was in Visoko, Bosnia and Herzegovina, volunteering for the Archaeological Park: Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun foundation, in 2014, I decided to visit the Obelisk with a couple of other volunteers and tourists. Our guide drove us and it took approximately an hour to reach the location. While we drove there, you could see the beautiful nature of Bosnia and Herzegovina and there were trees everywhere. Finally we came to this village I was very excited to visit the Obelisk of Bosnia. After our guide parked the minibus, we walked in addition about 15 minutes. The road was very muddy and it was clear that we were walking into a forest.

Finally, we could see the Obelisk from the distance.  As we came closer, it only got bigger and bigger and it was standing in the middle of the forest. I was amazed and I was not alone, because all of the tourists wanted a photo of this Obelisk. The Obelisk is four meters in height and is rectangular. On every side of the Obelisk, you can find symbols, which are probably spirals, grapes, flowers and some kind of animal. On the top of the Obelisk, you can find a perfectly shaped pyramid with all four sides. Not only that, but on top of the pyramid, you can find a stone sphere, which has been partially destroyed.

The Bosnian Obelisk in Olovo, in the village of Bakici.
Olovo 2.PNG
The pyramid and stone sphere that is placed on the top of the rectangular structure.

The original plan was to photograph some good photos and to make a video about the Obelisk when I come back to Norway, which I did and you can watch it here: Obelisk video.

After I photographed the Obelisk as much as I needed, it was time to get back to Visoko, but the other tourists wanted to meditate around the Obelisk. Some tourists, our guide and I returned to the minibus, while the others started their meditation.

While sitting and waiting for the tourists to finish their meditation, I examined the village. There were only three houses in the area and most of them had big farming lands. One muddy road crossed the village and went into the forest where the Obelisk was. In addition, there were a couple of small monuments for some of the people that died for the country, Bosnia and Herzegovina, in the recent war. The only thing that crossed my mind was that it was a real shame that this Obelisk has not received the recognition it deserves, because it is extraordinary and could do a lot for the village when it comes to the financial aspect.

Olovo 6
Another picture of the Obelisk.

Finally, the tourists finished their meditation and it was time to get back to Visoko. Now almost two years later, it is time to do two things, try to explain the Obelisk of Olovo and give this Obelisk the recognition it deserves.

Let us begin with the original history of the Obelisk. According to the historians, this Obelisk was built in the 14th century by the first king of Bosnia and his name was Tvrtko I Kotromanic. Tvrtko is considered to be one of the biggest kings in the Balkan-region and was a great warrior that occupied many lands in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the region, especially Croatia and Serbia. No one know why Tvrtko I decided to build the Obelisk in the middle of a forest in Bakici, but there is an interesting legend regarding Tvrtko and the Obelisk. According to the legend, Tvrtko I was wounded by a wild boar when Tvrtko I was in the forest, hunting for food. The Obelisk was built on the same spot Tvrtko I was wounded, because he wanted to give some respect to the wild boar (there are different versions of the legend, but this version is the most common).

Tvrtko I
A statue of Tvrtko I, the first king of Bosnia.

As I said before, the legend is interesting. However, this legend is not true in my opinion. It does not seem logical that Tvrtko I would build a Obelisk because he was wounded by a wild boar. We need to remember that the 14th century was a very turbulence time in Europe. There were many wars and the Black Death killed many people, which resulted in a big catastrophe for many families and countries. It just does not make sense to use resources on a Obelisk for a wild boar that wounded you. Many have said that the small head-figure on the Obelisk represents a wild boar, but I would disagree. The small figure could also be some other animal, perhaps a bird, fox etc. The Obelisk is in the middle of the forest where you can find all kinds of animals; it does not need to be a wild boar. In addition, we can ask ourselves why Tvrtko I would use so much time and effort on this Obelisk, just for a wild boar. In conclusion, Tvrtko I could have hunted for animals, but he probably did not built a four meter high Obelisk just for a wild boar or some other animal.

Olovo 3
The Obelisk figure.

Like we just saw, the legend is probably not true, but the Obelisk had to represent something, that is for sure. The Obelisk is very special and it has not been found any similar Obelisk in Bosnia, especially not with a pyramid and stone sphere on the top. Not only that, but the Obelisk is very symmetrical. We can ask ourselves where got his inspiration for the pyramid and the stone sphere. Approximately 50 kilometres from the Obelisk, we can find the town of Visoko and the Bosnian pyramids. In 1377, Tvrtko I was crowned the king of Bosnia nearby Visoki, an old town, which is located on the top of the Bosnian Sun pyramid. Afterwards he lived in Visoki for a long time. The Bosnian Sun pyramid has almost a perfect shape of a pyramid and Tvrtko I could have received the inspiration for the Obelisk’s pyramid from the Bosnian Sun pyramid. In addition, many legends have stated specifically that Tvrtko I was crowned on a pyramid hill, and now in 2005 it has been discovered that the pyramidal hill that the legends stated, was in fact a pyramid.

The old town of Visoki.
The Bosnian Sun pyramid.

Approximately 80 kilometres from the Obelisk, you can find the Bosnian stone spheres in Zavidovici, and there are tens of stone spheres. Tvrtko I did perhaps get the inspiration from the stone spheres in Zavidovici. In addition, the sphere is located on the top of the pyramid of the Obelisk and this can represent his kingdom, because a sphere is has a very special geometrical shape and could symbolize many things, for instance, unity and much of Bosnia was united in the time of Tvrtko I. In addition, you can find many Stecci with triangular shapes engraved, especially around Visoko, but the Obelisk that Tvrtko I contained a real pyramid, not just some engravings. Now we perhaps know where Tvrtko I could have received he inspiration for the pyramid and sphere for his Obelisk.

One of the stone spheres that can be found in Zavidovici.
Olovo 7.PNG
Another picture of the objects above the rectangular structure.

Like I addressed before, pyramid engravings can be found around the Visoko region, but the Obelisk is unique because it contains a real pyramid with all four sides. To strengthen the hypothesis that Tvrtko I got inspiration to build a pyramid from the Bosnian Sun pyramid, then we can just look around on some other Stecci. Many of them are showing spirals in a triangular shape and engravings that really look like pyramids and not some triangles. In my opinion, many of these did get inspiration from the Bosnian Sun pyramid, even if they did not know about the pyramids. The northern side of the Bosnian Sun pyramid is very fascinating and special and no wonder that those that engraved the pyramids on the different Stecci needed to have it on their own work. Another example is the pyramid that was found only some kilometres from the Bosnian Sun pyramid in the area ‘’Okoliste.’’ All these things could be traces of the Bosnian pyramids.

The pyramid artefact.
Pyramid 1
Stecak that has triangular symbols.
Pyramid 2
Triangular symbols on some other Stecak.
Another triangular symbol on a Stecak.
Pyramid 3.JPG
Triangular symbol.

There are also many symbols and I will address each symbol. The first symbol is the grapes and grapes are one of the most important fruits in Bosnia and Herzegovina. With grapes, you can make wine and other kind of food. The climate for grapes is perfect in the region, especially in Herzegovina.  

The second symbol is the flower. There are two different types of flowers on the Obelisk. There is nothing unusual with these flowers, because they can be found on other monuments like Stecci around Bosnia and Herzegovina. Flowers can symbolize many different things, for instance, unity, ambition etc.

The different flowers in the middle, with grapes and spirals on the side.

The Obelisk contains many spirals. These spirals can be found on other Stecci around Bosnia and Herzegovina and are very common in the region. The spirals could represent the galaxy, because they really look like the Milky Way Galaxy, but the spirals can of course represent something very different. I think Tvrtko I got inspiration from other Stecci in Bosnia and Herzegovina and decided to place those symbols on his own Obelisk. If the spirals on the different Stecci accross the Balkan-region are our Milky Way Galaxy, then those who built them had good knowledge about astronomy. Furthermore, the night sky in Bosnia and Herzegovina is beautiful and very clear, especially in the summer, which could have made the Milky Way easier to see for the ancients. In addition, the spirals could represent infinity. Infinity perhaps of our universe, because the ancient could have thought that the universe was infinite, and it really looks like it is infinite if we look up on the night sky. It seems so big and mysterious for us. It would have been more mysterious for those that did not know a lot about the planets and stars. 

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The spirals on the Obelisk.
The Milky Way Galaxy.
The night sky. 

The last symbol on the Obelisk is the figure, which many think is a wild boar and I have discussed this before and concluded that it does not need to be a wild boar, because the legend of the wounding of Tvrtko I and him making an Obelisk for the pig, does not make sense. However, it could be some other animal, probably an animal that can be found in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

It is very difficult to answer why Tvrtko I built this Obelisk. I personally believe that it has some connections with the Bosnian pyramids, because there is a perfectly shaped pyramid, which is over the rectangular part of the Obelisk and under a sphere. The geometrical shape of the pyramid and sphere is sacred, especially if we are talking about ancient sites around the world. Perhaps the Obelisk is a part of some energy system, just like the Bosnian pyramids. It would perhaps be a good idea to scan the Obelisk with different scientific instruments to check if there is a energy field that is coming from the Obelisk. The Obelisk could simply also be a normal Steccak that Tvrtko I left for the Bosnian people. The Obelisk needs more research and perhaps we will never surely know why Tvrtko I built this amazing Obelisk in the middle of a forest in Bakici.

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The Bosnian Obelisk.

We have now looked into the Bosnian Obelisk in the village of Bakici. The Obelisk is very interesting and mysterious and now we can only guess what kind of purpose the Obelisk served. The legend about the Obelisk is not true, mostly because it does not seem logical. In addition, the Obelisk could also have some connections with the Bosnian pyramids and the stone spheres in Zavidovici. We will perhaps never know the true purpose of the Obelisk, but it is necessary to research this Obelisk further, and potentially make this Obelisk a touristic stronghold, which can put Olovo and Bakici back on the map of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the world, and this article is a good start.

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My name is Djani Behram. I am a researcher of ancient places around the world, mostly in Bosnia and Herzegovina. I am also the ambassador of the Archaeological Park: Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation and I have volunteered at the Bosnian pyramids in 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015 and now 2016. I have good experience about the Bosnian pyramids and archaeological sites in the region. In addition, I own the biggest site about the Bosnian pyramids, which is posting news and pictures almost every day. I also own a YouTube site, called TheBIHLover, which is posting a video almost every Wednesday. If you have any questions or feedback, please send it to my email:

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The Cardinal Points and the Mysteries of the Bosnian Pyramids

There has been many discussions about the Bosnian pyramids since they were discovered in 2005. Many people think that the Bosnian pyramids are natural, while some think that the pyramids are artificial. I am here to show the mysteries of the Bosnian pyramids and their cardinal points.

As we know, there are five structures in Visoko, Bosnian Sun Pyramid, Moon pyramid, Dragon pyramid, Love pyramid and Temple of Mother Earth. I will also focus on the structures in Vratnica and the Ginje mound. We are going to study the cardinal points and sides of the different structures in Visoko, and we are going to discover some very interesting things just by studying different maps. I will be using Google Earth to point out the sides and the cardinal points of the different structures. Not only that, but I will try to connect the Bosnian pyramids with different constellations.

Let us start with the cardinal points. One of the most important evidences when it comes to finding out if the pyramids are natural or artificial, are the cardinal points, north, south, east and west. Many pyramids are oriented to the north, especially the Egyptian pyramids. It is highly unlikely that a hill is oriented to the north or to other cardinal points. Most of the pyramids in Bosnia are oriented to some cardinal point and the sides match almost perfectly, especially on the Bosnian Sun pyramid.

The Bosnian Sun pyramid has two perfectly shaped sides, the third that has probably been eroded over time and the fourth is missing, probably because the fourth side was eroded badly in the last years.

The Bosnian Sun pyramid.

If we take a closer look on the Bosnian Sun pyramid, we can see how the Bosnian Sun pyramid is shaped. We have an access plateau on the western side and the other sides that match the cardinal points. More about the sides of the Bosnian pyramids here: Explaining the Bosnian Sun pyramid

The sides of the Bosnian Sun pyramid.

You can clearly see that the Bosnian Sun pyramid is shaped and has had some human-intervention. The most interesting point is that the pyramid is matching the cardinalpoints perfectly and that the Bosnian Sun pyramid is oriented to the north.

The Bosnian Sun pyramid matching the cardinal points.

The picture you just saw is a picture that was taken on the top of the Bosnian Sun pyramid approximately in the middle of the structure. If we take a closer look from Google Earth, you can still see that the Bosnian Sun pyramid is matching the cardinal points. I did also make a video regarding the cardinal points of the Bosnian Sun pyramid, which you can find here: Cardinal Points of the Bosnian Sun pyramid

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The Bosnian Sun pyramid via satellite still matching the cardinal points. Compass on the right corner of the picture is pointing to north. Sattelite provided by Google Earth.

If we look on a topographic map in 3D, we can clearly see how the Bosnian Sun pyramid stands out from other ordinary hills. We did look at the cardinal points and we now know that they match. The topographic map is only reinforcing the existence of the Bosnian Sun pyramid.

The topographic map of the Bosnian Sun pyramid.

While the Bosnian Sun pyramid resembles like an Egyptian pyramid, the Bosnian Moon pyramid is different and can resemble as a Mexican pyramid. The structure is leaning towards a hill on the eastern side, which also function as an access plateau to the pyramid. The pyramid has also a flat plateau and after the excavations, it seems that the pyramid has small sandstone blocks.

The Bosnian Moon pyramid. (Picture by Jock Doubleday)


Blocks on the Bosnian Moon pyramid plateau.

The Bosnian Moon pyramid is a beautiful structure and it is much bigger than it seems, but it looks like there has been a major landslide on the western side of the Moon pyramid. Because we can clearly see, if we use Google Earth, that there is a particular shape to the Bosnian Moon pyramid on the bottom. This is not easy to see, however, I am going to mark it. We will start at the bottom. 

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The Bosnian Moon pyramid without any lines via Google Earth. The pyramid is matching the cardinal points.


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Lines showing the continuation of the Bosnian Moon pyramid.

Now we have seen the possible sides of the Bosnian Moon pyramids, which is running many meters below the green vegetation. If we continue marking the Bosnian Moon pyramid, following the sides, we get an interesting shape.

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The intereting shape of the Bosnian Moon pyramid. All lines are following the sides of the Bosnian Moon pyramid which are covered by vegetation.

If the lines on the picture, which you just saw, were originally the sides of the Moon pyramid, then we can figure out how the Moon pyramid looked like before. We can also see that the pyramid is matching the cardinal points. A hill can not have perfect angles cardinal points. Yes, the western side has had a landslide, but perhaps I did show and mark the original shape of the pyramid, which we can see that it has good angles. This means that the Bosnian Moon pyramid has also had some human-intervention, no matter if it was an hill before and reshaped to be a pyramid or if it was built from the ground and up.

The third pyramid is the Bosnian Dragon pyramid, which is a very special structure. The Dragon pyramid has one triangular sides, while it is probably connected with a hill. The Dragon pyramid is either an unfinished project or just a structure with one triangular side. There has not been much research on the Bosnian Dragon pyramid, but I am sure that it has some similarities with the other structures in Visoko.

Bosnian Dragon pyramid. Picture by Sanel Silajdzic.

The Dragon pyramid has one pyramidal sides, which is oriented to the north. The orientation is perfect if we look from Google Earth. In addition, it looks like the Dragon pyramid also has a half-triangular side, oriented perfectly to the east.

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The Dragon pyramid from Google Earth satellite.
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The northern and eastern side of the Dragon pyramid, which are mathing the cardinal points.

The Dragon pyramid is a very special structure and needs to be researched more if we are going to conclude anything. Now the structure is only a part of a much bigger mystery regarding the Bosnian pyramids.

If we move further, to the Bosnian Love pyramid, we can see that this structure is also leaned towards one of the hills, but we can clearly see three sides and one flat plateau. It looks like the Moon pyramid, but just in a smaller version.

Bosnian Love pyramid.

The Love pyramid’s sides do not match the cardinal points, but the corners of the pyramid do, which is very interesting. We can also clearly see that the structure is shaped. By studying the pyramids via Google Earth sattelite, we can cleary see where the sides of the Love pyramids are. The structure has sharp sides and corners. In addition, the sides of the Love pyramid are at 45 degrees to the cardinal points, just as the pyramid in Monte Alban.

The Monte Alban pyramid.

The Love pyramid also has a very sharp corner on the northeastern slope of the structure, but it is not as sharp as the southern side. The reason behind this is that the Sun and Love pyramids could be connected to each other. Jock Doubleday explored the slopes between the Sun and Love pyramids on the northeastern edge of the Love pyramid and his research was very interesting (Alternating Clay and Concrete Layers in the Crevice between the Bosnian Pyramid of Love and the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun). Nothing yet is concluded, but it could be possible that the Sun and Love pyramids are connected. In addition, the Love pyramid needs more research, especially on the ground.

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Bosnian Love pyramid from Google Earth sattelite. You can see that the corners of the pyramid is matching the cardinal points.

The Temple of Mother Earth is not a pyramid, but a structure. The structure has special shape, which looks like a quarter of a circle. In addition, the structure has a triangular shape to the eastern side, which is also the ending of the structure.

The Temple of Mother Earth.

I have studied the Google Earth maps of the Temple of Mother Earth and I found something interesting. It looks like the triangular shape on the structure has an almost perfect orientation to the east. It is not easy to see, since the triangular shape of the structure has been partially destroyed. It also appears that the deepest section of the Temple of Mother Earth has an orientation to the south, while if we look from the other side, where the structure has a bigger ‘’lean,’’ the part of the structure is then oriented to the north. The orientations of Temple of Mother Earth needs to be researched further, not only by Google Earth and different maps.

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Temple of Mother Earth via Google Earth satellite.
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The triangle having an almost perfect orientation to east and the approcimate peak of the Temple of Mother Earth, having an orientation to north and south.

Another special thing about the Bosnian valley of the pyramids is if you connect the tops of the Bosnian Sun, Moon and Dragon pyramid, you will get an equilateral triangle. Each side of this triangle is 2.2 kilometres in length (+/- 2%) and has three internal angles of 60 degrees.

The triangle connecting the peaks of the Bosnian Sun, Moon and Dragon pyramid.

We can clearly see that the triangle is not only connecting the three different pyramids, but also the lines are crossing the other two structures, which are Temple of Mother Earth and the Love pyramid. Not only that, but the line is crossing the Temple of Mother Earth in the middle and crosses the structure very deep to the east, where the structure starts and connects the Moon pyramid. While on the other side, the line is crossing the start of the Love pyramid and onto the the Sun pyramid from the south.

Geologist Rich Hoyle has researched the triangle and he discovered some mind-blowing topographical alignments. He has discovered that you can connect the different structures with a circle and that if you connect all of the topographical alignments, you get different geometrical shapes. More information on his article, under case two: 9 Cases That Prove the Existence of Pyramids in Bosnia

The circle that connects the Bosnian pyramids.

These alignments are not some coincidences. The ancients, who built and shaped the structures, planned everything closely. We know that by researching the different structures from the air, ground and different scientific instruments.

Another very interesting thing is the Ginje hill, which is probably an artificial constructed hill of some kind, because there has been found rectangular blocks on the hill. Now, the artificially constructed hill is not the most interesting part. If you look from the Ginje hill to northeast, you can perfectly see almost all of the structures of the Bosnian pyramids, apart from the Bosnian Moon pyramid.

Picture showing a part of the Ginje hill.
The Bosnian valley of the pyramids from Ginje hill. The Dragon pyramid is to the left, while the Temple of Mother Earth is to the right. The Love and Sun pyramids are in the middle.

The interesting thing is that if you look directly at the Bosnian Sun pyramid, you can see that the structure is cut by half by the Love pyramid and their sides fit perfectly. You can also see how the South side could have looked like before the erosion and you can see that the western side connects with the eastern side like an ordinary pyramid or structure. If you stand in the middle of the hill, then you look directly at the Sun and Love pyramid, which is very extraordinary.

The Love pyramid cutting the Sun pyramid pefectly by half

Furthermore, the side of the Love pyramid, which is cutting the half of the Bosnian Sun pyramid, moves further to the middle of Temple of Mother Earth. Not only that, but it looks like that the valley is aligned with the constellation of Cassiopeia. If you look from the Ginje hill towards the valley and connect the different structures, you will get the constellation. Cassiopeia is a legendary figure in the Greek mythology. She was also a queen. Now, I do not want to get deep into the whole story of Cassiopeia, but the constellation can be seen the whole year from the northern hemisphere, although sometimes upside down. It is also possible that the constellation was special for the ancient builders of the pyramids in Bosnia in a different way and that they believed something else around the Cassiopeia constellation. The constellation really matches the Bosnian valley of the pyramids if you look from Ginje and it is beatiful. Cassiopeia was one of the most beautiful queens in the Greek mythology. It really reflects the Bosnian pyramids. If you want to read more about the constellation, please go to point eight in this article: 9 Cases That Prove the existence of Pyramids in Bosnia

The constellation of Cassiopeia.

The age of the Ginje hill is still unknown. The artificial hill was probably a sacred place for the ancients, because it is one of the best lookouts of the Bosnian valley of the pyramids. Ginje hill needs more research and excavations to conclude when and who built this hill, which has a perfect lookout towards the valley.

Approximately 3.5 kilometres from Visoko, there is a village called Vratnica. This village has a Tumulus, which is over 30 meters high. This tumulus was discovered in 2008 and has been excavated by the foundation (Archaeological Park: Bosnian Pyramid of The Sun Foundation) and the structure has many perfectly shaped and rectangular blocks.

Vratnica Tumulus.

What is special with this tumulus is that it is not totally half, but has a plateau that is coming from the back of the structure. We can compare this access plateau with the other pyramids in Visoko, for instance, Sun pyramid and Moon pyramid. This means that whoever built the structures in Visoko, also built an access plateau, perhaps for easier access to the different structure, but it could also be for structural stability. In case of an earthquake the structure will not collapse, because it ‘’leans’’ to the access plateau.

We know that there is one tumulus in Vratnica, but there are probably another two more, only meters from each other. These two structures are perhaps artificial constructed hills. The second mound is much smaller than the bigger tumulus, and this mound has an access plateau. The other is smaller than the second mound.

The second potentially constructed mound in Vratnica.
The third potentially constructed mound in Vratnica.

Could there be any connections with the different mounds in the area? Well, I researched it by using Google Earth and did research it on different maps. I even checked different reports from the area, especially the report from geologist Rich Hoyle (The report by geologist Rich Hoyle). What I found out is mind-blowing. I noticed some big similarities between the Giza pyramids and the tumulus and mounds in the Vratnica. The Giza pyramids do probably have some connections with the constellation of Orion, the three main stars in the Orion constellation. Now, if we compare the constellation of the Giza pyramids, with the mounds in Vratnica, we get a very interesting result. Not only that, but also the stars and structures goes from the biggest to the smallest, just like the Giza pyramids.

The Giza pyramids potentially forming the constellation of Orion.
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The Vratnica structures are almost forming the constellation of Orion.

The similarities are very interesting and they only raise more questions. Could there be some connections between the Vratnica structures and the Orion constellation? If the structures really have some connections, then those who built the structures in Vratnica would have had good knowledge about astronomy, especially if they built the structures in a way that matches the Orion constellation. One thing is certain, the structures in Vratnica need more research.

We have now looked into the cardinal points and the sides of the different pyramids in Visoko. Not only that, but we have tried to connect the Bosnian valley of the pyramids with different constellations. We have also proved that some of the pyramids match the cardinal points, either by the corners or the sides, and all of the pyramids has sharp corners. When three different structures match the cardinal points perfectly, then there is no coincidence. It means that we are dealing with artificial structures. It will be important to research the different structures and their connections with other constellations and structures around the world in the future. The pyramids in Bosnia are still one of the most mysterious and interesting archaeological places in the 21st century and it will only get more interesting in the future.


My name is Djani Behram. I am the ambassador and videographer of the Archeaelogical Park: Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation. I volunteered at the Bosnian pyramids in 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015 and have good knowlegde and experience about the Bosnian pyramids. I own the biggest Bosnian pyramids and Semir Osmanagich page on Facebook. The page is posting news and pictures almost every day. I own a Youtube channel called TheBIHLover with new videos almost every Wednesday. If you have any questions please ask me on email:

My Facebook page:

My YouTube channel:

Bosnian pyramids official website:


Further research:

Scientific Analysis Of Bosnian Valley Of The Pyramids

The Bosnian Pyramid Complex: Signs of Technically Advanced Ice Age Civilization

Archaeological Reports Of The Bosnian Pyramids