In this article, I am going to reflect the landscape of the Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids. I am going to be supportive of the hypothesis that there are pyramids in Visoko, but I will try to reflect if it is possible for an ancient civilization to build pyramids at the location where the town of Visoko is right now. Before analyzing the landscape I am going to give some reflections if humans could have lived in the Balkans 30 000 years ago by pointing out research. Later I will analyze the landscape and point out four main points: water, materials for building, potential to live and natural barriers – that are important if someone was going to build structures like in Visoko. In some paragraphs, there will be some comparisons with other cultures and civilizations around the world with Visoko.
In the last years, several researchers have concluded that humans were in Europe earlier than thought. Some years ago baby teeth from Italy were found and they were dated at 43 000 to 45 000 years old. Other researchers have found two fossils of an ape-like creature which had human-like teeth in Bulgaria and Greece, dating to 7,2 million years ago. This means that Europe was the birthplace of mankind and not Africa. Even though this still needs more research, we may say that there has been a lot of activity in Southern-Europe, which strengthen the hypothesis of the Bosnian Pyramids.
The reason why we do not find so many artefacts of these people could be because rising sea levels that have happened since the last ice age. Just as climate change is threatening historic sites around the world right now. Moreover, many of the artefacts could have been destroyed by nature with erosions. This perhaps the is reason why no other artefacts than the baby teeth were found in Italy. Additionally, many artefacts could have been destroyed by other cultures or civilizations in the last centuries – and therefore it is more difficult to give a correct history of mankind, especially prehistory. Nevertheless, we may say that there were people in the Balkans 30 000 years ago, but the question remains: Could they have built a pyramid considering the landscape in Visoko?
Rivers and water
One of the most important resources for every living being on our planet is water. Without water, there is no potential to live, ergo it is difficult for an advanced culture to develop. The oldest civilizations that developed were close by rivers. Euphrates and Tigris were the most important rivers for ancient cultures and civilizations in Mesopotamia. In Egypt, the river Nile was crucial for building the pyramids and survival of ancient Egyptians. In the Indus Valley, the river Indus was the most important river for cultures and civilizations which were first to develop agriculture. To this day, these rivers are still important. Therefore we see a pattern that the civilizations developed close by rivers.
Visoko has two rivers – Fojnica and Bosna. Now, we do not know how the rivers looked like 30 000 years ago, when the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun was apparently built. Some will point out that there were no rivers there, because of the ice age. However, the Balkan region was one of the only regions in Europe that did not have ice during the ice age. Therefore we may argue that the rivers Bosna and Fojnica existed 30 000 years ago. These rivers could have been used for transport of materials, for instance, clay or wood. Additionally, it could have been used for ancient agriculture.
Interestingly, there are a lot of underground water streams in Visoko and this is still present today. There are multiple locations where there is freshwater from the nearby mountains. For instance, there are freshwater stations at the Moon and Sun Pyramid. According to a number of researchers, there are a lot of underground water streams under for instance the Ravne tunnels. This has also been proved in 2012 when the volunteers tried to excavate a potential structure beneath the Ravne tunnels, and the whole hole flooded the next day.
These underground water streams are especially important because those who built the pyramids could have used them both for building the pyramid and for themselves. A good comparison is the Maya-culture, that had deep natural wells called ‘’cenotes,’’ which were important for their source of water. The same thing could have happened to the builders of the Bosnian Pyramids. These natural wells could have been eroded in later times and are yet to be discovered. Another thing the civilization could have done was to build manmade wells around where Visoko is today.
Even if the rivers Bosna and Fojnica did not exist 30 000 years ago, we may say that the rivers were not necessary for the builders of the pyramids, because they had many underground water streams they could have used. Teotihuacan does not have rivers nearby and the Mayans used the ‘’cenotes’’ instead and the result was one of the biggest ancient cities in history with many pyramids and structures. The underground water streams are therefore a crucial part for the builders of the pyramids. Today, Bosnia and Herzegovina have rich water sources, compared to other European countries – which may reflect how it was 30 000 years ago.
Materials for building
If a culture is going to build structures, then they need to have materials for it, preferably close to the location they want to build the structures on. If we study the blocks of the Bosnian Sun Pyramid, then they consist of loose stones and clay combined, where clay was used as the binding material. Many have argued that the materials were found when the civilization who built the pyramids, dug the Ravne tunnels and used the loose sand and stones from the tunnels to build the Sun Pyramid.
However, while I support this hypothesis, I do not think that there were enough materials to build the whole Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun only from the Ravne tunnels. I think that they brought the loose sand and stones from other places in the region. I am not going to speculate where this location was, but the civilization which built the pyramids could have easily gotten the materials from somewhere nearby.
The other material, clay, could have been found in the nearby mountains, for instance, Osijela Hill. Osijela Hill is a weird hill and some point out that the half of the hill is missing, and that the materials from that hill were perhaps used by the civilization who built the Sun Pyramid. Same with the Moon Pyramid, which consists of clay and sandstone, could have been built by using materials from nearby.
To make the blocks, you need a high temperature, which is made of fire. And in order to make the fire, you need materials for it. The main material people used to make a fire before the industrial revolution was wood. The whole Balkan-region, especially northern Bosnia and Herzegovina is filled with forests. One of the last primeval forests in Europe today is located in Bosnia and Herzegovina. We may only imagine how the whole region was filled with forests 30 000 years ago. Those who built the pyramids had enough materials to produce big fires. How they produced it with so high temperatures is still researched. The most important thing is that the region has the materials to build the structures that can be found in Visoko.
Potential to live
In order for one culture to build structures like in Visoko, one needs enough food. One of the most important resources is fish. When the northern part of Europa was covered by ice, many fish moved to the southern part of the world, for instance, the Mediterranean. Just as climate change today is pushing the fish further north because it is warmer there than before. This means that for instance Norway and Iceland will have more fish than before in the future.
We can imagine that the same situation happened 30 000 years ago in the Mediterranean. Because there is a reason why the baby teeth, which were dated to 43 000 to 45 000 years old, were found in southern parts of the continent and not in the northern parts. This is because there was better potential for humans to live in the southern parts of Europe because of the warmer climate than in the north. Furthermore, warmer climate gives more resources and fish is one of those resources.
In addition to fish, we may say that there was a lot of forest in the region like we argued before. The forests are important because one may find a lot of animals to hunt and pet. Deers, wild boars and bears are still common today. The region could have had even more animals because the climate was warmer in the southern than northern Europe. Other animals, which do not exist today because of climate change and human activity, could have existed before, like the mammoth. And because of the forest, Bosnia and Herzegovina probably had a lot of animals one could eat.
Because of so many forests, the people who built the pyramids could also have started with some agriculture – especially with slash-and-burn. This is a farming method were one cuts and burn forests of woodland to create a field for agriculture. We already know that the Mayan culture used this technique. However, this alone cannot feed a whole population that is capable of building so colossal structures like the Bosnian Pyramids. Therefore we also may say that the builders of the pyramids could have used the rivers in Bosnia or the underground water streams for farming. Therefore those who built the Bosnian Pyramids could have settled in the area because of all the resources they could have found there.
There is already evidence of agricultural cultures around Visoko that are dating to 5200-4500 BCE. This was the Butmir culture. Even though there is no evidence yet of social stratification, the culture lived out of einkorn, cattle and emmer. Additionally, they hunted for food. The important point here is that people were living in the same region where the pyramids were built 5200 BCE. Even though the Sun pyramid is 25 000 years older, it just shows how important this region was for cultures and the potential to live there. We may say that those who built the Bosnian Pyramids also were similar to the Butmir culture.
However, if someone is going to build the colossal structures like the Bosnian Pyramids, one needs to have a social stratification. We are not going to discuss this in this article, but every culture that has built colossal structures – like Mayan, Egyptian, Sumerian etc., has had social stratification and therefore we also may say that the Bosnian Pyramids have had it too. However, this still needs more research, but the important thing here is that if the Butmir culture could have lived in the area 5200 BCE, then it is also possible that another culture or civilization could have lived at the same place 30 000 years ago.
One important factor for ancient civilizations were natural barriers. Natural barriers are important to keep invaders out. The Chinese had the Himalayas, Pacific Ocean and dense jungles as natural barriers – which made them isolated from invaders from Europe and the Middle East for centuries. The Maya civilization was surrounded by the ocean. Egypt had the Mediterranean Sea in the north, Nile River in the east and the massive Sahara Desert in the west and south.
In the case of the Bosnian Pyramids and Visoko, there are some important natural barriers that may keep invaders out. The Dinaric Alps are in my opinion important natural barriers for the civilization that could have developed in Visoko. The Dinaric Alps are protecting Visoko from the south and west. If we look at a map of Visoko, we will also see that the town is surrounded by hills. The only part where potential invaders could have invaded was probably from the north because the mountains are not that dense like in for example the south. However, it would have been easy to spot them and defend the pyramids because they would not have attacked from different flanks.
It makes sense of why the civilization would have built pyramids at the location where Visoko today is, namely because the civilization or culture would have been protected from invaders by nature. Just as the greatest civilizations were developed in areas where they were protected by natural barriers.
However, this means that there were more culture or civilizations at the same time when the Bosnian Pyramids were built. It would have been illogical if our planet had pyramid builders 30 000 years ago in the Balkan-region, while there were no humans other places. Like I wrote before, baby teeth have been discovered in Italy which are 45 000 years old. This means that the people who built the pyramids had potential enemies and that it was smart to build pyramids where Visoko is today, rather than for example in Beograd where one has open fields, where everyone can attack you.
In this article, I have given my reflections on the landscape where the pyramids were built in Visoko and if there was potential to even build them at that location. By giving four arguments, water, the potential for materials, potential to live and natural barriers, I discussed that there was potential to live in the region where the pyramids are standing today. Furthermore, I have strengthened my arguments by giving examples from other civilizations and cultures. Nevertheless, this subject still needs more research.
Wiesner-Hanks, M.E., Ebrey Buckley, P., Beck, R.B., Davila, J., Crowston C.H. and McKay,
J.P. (2017) A History of World Societies. Boston: Beford/St. Martin’s
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Djani Behram studies history at the University of Bergen. He is the ambassador of the Archaeological Park: Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation since 2012.
I have written a couple of articles since 2015. These articles have either been about the Ravne tunnels or the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun. It is time to shift focus, and to write an article about the Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon. This article will focus on producing the best evidence that there is a structure at the location of the Moon pyramid. Furthermore, I will give my own reflections on the structure itself.
The Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon was discovered almost at the same time as the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun, in 2005. This pyramid is different than the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun. The top of the pyramid of the Moon is flat. Why the pyramid is flat on the top, is unknown, but some argue that the pyramid is an unfinished project. Personally, I am not sure, and I do not to comment on that in this article. However, the same thing as the Sun pyramid, is that is has an access plateau that is going to the top of the pyramid. The Moon Pyramid is also leaning to a hill, most probably for structural stability. The materials you may find on the Moon pyramid are sandstone blocks and clay, while on the Sun pyramid, the materials you may find are concrete-like-materials, conglomerate and clay combined, making big blocks. According to a sample of an organic material that was found on one of the paved terraces at the Moon pyramid, the age of the structure is over 10 000 years old (Source). The carbon material was found in 2010. However, the pyramid may be much older. We may see some similarities. The Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon was built almost the same time as Göbekli Tepe, if we are going to follow the latest analysis of the site (Source). The blocks are also similar, which is interesting.
As the whole valley of the Bosnian Pyramids, the Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon is complicated. It seems like the builders of the pyramid used clay between the blocks, no matter what size, most probably because of structural stabilization. Excavations that were opened in 2006, uncovered some of the blocks, making a terrace. Six years later, this terrace has been destroyed, probably because of erosion. There are also bigger blocks, for instance at section 20, where it has not eroded that much, because the blocks are much bigger. In my personal opinion, the clay is supposed to be there, between the blocks, otherwise the pyramid may get totally eroded. To remove the soil is fine, in my opinion, but removing the clay, may destroy the structure, because it may get eroded after some time.
There are different arguments around how the pyramid of the Moon was built. The two most used arguments are: 1) The pyramid was built from ground up and 2) the pyramid was previously a hill, but shaped to be a structure. I believe that both arguments are plausible. The builders of the Moon pyramid, were using natural materials to build the structure, for instance clay. Some years ago, a property owner started to dig on the top of the Moon pyramid. The reason why is that he wanted to build a well. But later, when Dr. Osmanagich announced the pyramids in Visoko, he understood that he was digging out blocks from the pyramid. This section is clearly showing that the pyramid of the Moon was perhaps built from the ground up, by clay and sandstone blocks, which are easy to make, especially in Bosnia and Herzegovina, where you have a lot of clay. However, the Moon pyramid is a bit ‘’bent’’ on some places, which means that there is a lot of tectonic activity in the area, that is pushing the blocks and clay upwards, making ‘’bent blocks’’ on, for instance, the top of the pyramid. This could mean that the Moon pyramid does not have a man-made foundation on the bottom, so that the natural ‘’foundation’’ is pushing the blocks and clay-layers upwards. The clay-layers are luckily protecting the blocks, so that it does not collapse.
If we study the LIDAR Scans, which were published in 2016, we may see that some parts of the Moon pyramid are destroyed, especially the south-western side of the pyramid. It seems like it has collapsed for some reason. The two main reason are: 1) Tectonic activity or 2) destroyed or taken blocks by the locals over the historic periods. According the archaeological report of the Bosnian pyramids from 2012, there has been found many artefacts from the several historic periods, for instance pottery and iron-horse shoes (Source). The pottery is from the Butmir culture, one of the oldest cultures in Bosnia and Herzegovina. This culture existed in Neolithic times. Therefore, we may conclude that there has been a lot of activity in the area, that could have used the blocks of the Moon pyramid for, for instance, their houses. Like I wrote in my previous articles, many of the blocks from the Moon pyramid has been taken by private property owners of the sites of the structure, to sell it to tourists. This is of course destroying the pyramid in a bad way – and we are losing artefacts forever. What the structure needs is 1) protection by the state and 2) full excavations and research by archaeologists, geologists, anthropologists and historians. Only then we may protect the pyramid, and know more about it. It is also important to point out that the Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon is matching the cardinal points (Source).
As all of the pyramids in Visoko, the Bosnian Moon pyramid has some kind of energies. Recent research by Dr. Konstantin Korotkov proves this (Source). According to his research, the Moon pyramid is good for our health. There are different energies on the bottom of the pyramid and on the top. Another researcher, Heikki Savolainen, also proves that there are energies on the Moon pyramid (Source). He made a presentation at the International Scientific Conference in 2011, and one may watch his presentation here: Source.
Trench number 20, is one of the most interesting trenches that has been excavated on the Bosnian Moon pyramid. The trench was firstly excavated in 2006. Further excavations continued in 2010 and 2011. The trench is important, because it is showing us how the pyramid could have been built. First you have a block, then clay, then a block again, then clay etc. Many of the blocks are triangular, and shaped 90 degrees. Some of the blocks are not, and the reason could be because of structural stability. It is better when blocks support each other in a ‘’circular’’ way, than in ‘’square.’’. It seems like a puzzle, so that the blocks are more ‘’fit’’ in the case of an earthquake.
Nevertheless, like I wrote before, the clay is important when it comes to the Moon pyramid, and it perhaps should not be removed. This is because it is stabilizing the structure. One of the geology students from 2010, suggested the same thing. Here he/she points out that the sandstone blocks are eroding quickly when exposed. (Source). Therefore, we may say that some of the blocks on the Moon pyramid, were perhaps never meant to be exposed, by removing the clay, because it gets eroded quickly. Trench number 8, may also prove that the blocks of the Moon pyramid, were made on the site, poured like an asphalt, and on other places the blocks were made, and placed later. For instance, on trench number 20, the blocks were made, then placed. On tench 8, some of the blocks were poured. Or the blocks on the trench number 8, has been eroded, and there are missing blocks. It still needs a lot of research.
Another location I want to focus on, is one trenches on the top of the pyramid. Here we may find smaller sandstone blocks, placed on clay layers. If we study the trench, we may see that the blocks on the left are perhaps from the culture that built the Moon pyramid, while the blocks on the right, and were added later by a different culture. Also the blocks on the right are destroyed or were taken out in the past by some culture, for some unexplained reason. This is normal, and archaeologists often discover destroyed historical sites, and need to reconstruct it later. We need to remember that the structure is over 10 000 years old – a lot could have happened these years. Nevertheless, the trench may prove the existence of the Bosnian Moon pyramid.
In addition, it is interesting to point out that there are similarities between the pyramids in Teotihuacan and Moon pyramid. If we study the Pyramid of Sun in Teotihuacan, we may see that it has the same shape as the Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon before excavations. It looks rather like a mound, than a pyramid, but after, it is one of the most fascinating structures on the planet. We may wonder what the Bosnian Pyramid of Moon will look like after excavations and reconstructions. Time will tell.
This article is not as long as the other articles, but at least I hope that one may get an idea regarding the Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon. I have showed some of the most important trenches, and given my own reflections on the structure, based on my own and others research. The idea of this article was to give a source, so that others may use it in their own articles, if they want to make one. Hopefully, the article may make discussions, because it is important in research. Like always, more research and excavations are needed, in order to understand the Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon.
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Djani Behram is a researcher of ancient places around the world, mostly in Bosnia and Herzegovina. He is also the ambassador of the Archaeological Park: Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation and has volunteered at the Bosnian pyramids for six years now. He also has good experiences with the Bosnian pyramids and archaeological sites in the region. In addition, he owns one of the biggest sites about the Bosnian pyramids, which is posting news and photographs almost every day.
Some months ago I made an article where I discussed the Ravne tunnels and the mine hypothesis. There we concluded that the Ravne tunnels were probably not a gold mine, definitely not natural, and that the tunnels are older than the medieval period. This article is a continuation of the previous article, after further research of the tunnels. It is important to make your own opinions, while reading this article. Previous article: Discussing the Ravne tunnels and the mine hypothesis.
The main focus of this article will be the tunnel that was discovered in 2010, but researched further in 2012. According to the archaeological report from 2012 (Source), they found out that there were a continuation of free debris behind the filling material. The volunteers started excavating the tunnel, and found a new section. One of the first volunteers that entered the new section, was Alfredo Bertan – an experienced volunteer at the Bosnian Pyramid. He made a descision to enter the tunnels alone, but the important part here is that he took a camera with him. Bertan filmed the whole section of the tunnels, and it is just breathtaking. The video is on YouTube, and I will recommend the readers to watch the whole video, so that you can have an idea of the content of this article (Video).
The tunnels you just saw are 150 meters in length (according to the report from 2012). We are going to study the report a bit. Riccardo Brett, the man responsible for writing the report, entered the tunnels most probably after Bertan. According to the report from 2012 and Bertan’s video, we have (Shorter length, if you want to read in whole, please click on the link above):
1. First 20 meters: water is present up to a depth of 20/30 centimeters. It is therefore easy to walk through. Additionally, the ceiling becomes suddenly higher. After the water channel, one is forced to crawl. As we can see on the video, there are two water sections, for an unknown reason.
2. After the first 20 meters, Bertan is forced to crawl. After about 3 meters, the tunnel splits into two parts – one to the left and one to the right. Bertan chooses the one of the right. The tunnel becomes suddenly bigger. He finds one dry wall, and two track lines, probably from a wheel barrow. They are only some meters long, and after that you have the filling material again. There were no signs of footprints. Close to the dry walls, one may find traces of smoke, from perhaps candles or oil lamps.
3. The tunnels after about 10 meters, becomes tighter and the exploring team found a monolith, according to the report. In addition, there are 8 parallel lines on the megalith. The reason is unknown.
4. After some meters, and a small water channel, the tunnels split again – right and left. Bertan chooses left. Later he finds marking of tools on the clay layers, probably from small pickaxes.
5. The tunnel continues for 15 meters, and the tunnel is sealed with the filling material. The volunteers tried to clear it a bit, but the working conditions were hard, and it was decided to abandon the tunnel.
The tunnel itself looks like an ordinary Ravne tunnel. It looks a bit like the ‘’Rabbit Hole’’ tunnel that was discovered in 2014. The weird stuff is the obvious evidence that someone was here recently. It is unknown when and who entered the tunnels. Additionally, the tracks are ‘’trapped’’ between the filling materials. It should be noted that an oil lamp was found in a different section of tunnels in 2012 (I have discussed this). The reason why the tunnels are different in height, is probably because of the ventilation system, and the reason why we have so much side tunnels is because of the ventilation. These side tunnels have probably very small openings outside, yet to be discovered. Very small tunnels, are probably ventilation systems. However, tunnels with a lot of filling material are the main tunnels, where someone may walk. The tunnel that was explored by Bertan, is one of the main tunnels, in my opinion.
It is unknown why someone entered the tunnels and how. I am going to argue that they entered from another entrance. The reason why is that the entrance that was discovered in 2006, by Dr. Osmanagich, was almost filled to the brim. Furthermore, the entrance is too small for a wheel barrow to access, and there are no traces of such in the beginning of the tunnel. If we go deeper into the tunnels, at the location of the ‘’Egg megalith,’’ the tunnel split into two parts. The tunnel to the left is the tunnel where one may found Runic symbols, megalith K2 etc. Tunnel to the right was excavated later, and here we may found many water channels. If we watch Bertan’s video, and how the tunnels split into two parts, we may see that it looks very similar. For a closer look of the two tunnels at the ”Egg megalith,” please check out this video.
Furthermore, there has not been found any medieval artefacts in any of the tunnels close to the megaliths that has been discovered in the recent years. However, there has been found remains of a fireplace in 2009, approximately 180 meters from the entrance discovered in 2006, according to Dr. Osmanagich’s book ‘’Pyramids around the world (2011).’’ Samples of the organic material were sent for radiocarbon analysis to Sweden and Poland. The laboratory for analysis of age at University of Uppsala found that the organic sample was 3091 years old (+/-111 years). It would be interesting to see how old the traces of smoke are, that were found in the sections that were explored by volunteers in 2012. That would definitely help us understand this section of tunnels. We obviously see that the tunnels have been entered previously by other people.
In my personal opinion, the entrance to the Ravne tunnels that was discovered in 2006, is not the main entrance to the tunnels. Let us imagine how the location looked like thousands of years ago. There were no roads, and the place was surely very muddy and full of vegetation. I have no doubt that the entrance today is one of the entrances, but perhaps not the main entrance. I have previously argued that the ancients could have taken conglomerate and clay from the Ravne 2 area, to build the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun (Source). This may still be possible, of course, because the ramp of the Sun pyramid was probably used to build the pyramid easier and for stabilization purposes, and it is to going towards the location of the Ravne tunnels. I think that there are entrances to the Ravne tunnels, much closer to the Sun pyramid. In 2015, tourist Zora Novak, explored one of the possible entrances with a local person. She filmed everything (Video). At first the tunnels look similar as the entrance that was discovered in 2006. Furthermore, the brown material, looks like the filling material that have been found inside the tunnels. The tunnels may seem small for a person to enter, but we need to remember that the entrance to today’s entrance to the Ravne tunnels is also small, but later it gets bigger. The entrance is close to the Ravne tunnel entrance that was discovered in 2006.
Additionally, there are different legends regarding underground tunnels in Visoko. Some of the legends are for instance that Queen Catherine of Bosnia escaped by the tunnels systems at Old Town, called Visoki, which is located on the top of the Sun pyramid. Other legends tell us that there is an entrance hallway to the Sun pyramid, for some called Vilindo. ‘’Vilin’’ is usually referred to spirits, while ‘’do’’ is referring to valley. This is a connection with mythology, with Paleo-Pagan or Mithraic cults. Even if no locals have any information about this place, they told that there is another entrance to Ravne, west of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun, according to the report of 2012.
The ones that entered the tunnels, which Bertan explored, did not enter deep in the tunnels at all, because there were not any traces in the tunnels that Bertan was coming from. My hypothesis is that the people that entered the tunnels, were probably looking for materials they could sell, for instance gold. They cleared out the filling material and went a bit deeper, but when they could not find any good materials, other than conglomerate, quartz crystal etc., they abandoned the tunnels. They filled the tunnels with the filling material, so that no one would notice that they have been there. One of the dry walls that was found in that section, looks partially destroyed (8:12 on Bertan’s video). Perhaps they removed some of the stones from the wall, to see if there was a tunnel behind this particular wall. The remains of this wall may be found at minute 7:31. It may mean that the dry walls were already there when the people entered the tunnels, and removed some of them to continue their exploration. These tunnels were probably not used as mines in ancient times, because we do not find any strong evidence of such and I have discussed this before also. The traces of pickaxes could have been made when the people tried to clear out the filling material – because it does not make any sense of why someone would mine for clay, when there is a lot of clay in the Visoko-area.
If we study Bertan’s video, we will see something interesting. At first the water in the water channels are totally clear, but the water at 14:25 and 18:00 is dirty – the reason is unknown. If we compare how much water there is at first, and later, we may see that it is not a lot of water at all at 14:25 and 18:00. Perhaps those who entered the tunnels cleared out some of the water, with a bucket, for easier access. If we compare other water channels in Ravne with the water channel at 14:25, we will see that the water should have been a bit higher. In the middle of the water channel at 14:25, we may see an edge. The edge on other water channels is under the water. This may strengthen the hypothesis that someone removed some of the water with a bucket. It seems like those who entered did not come far at all, if we follow the bucket-hypothesis, because the water at first is much than the water that comes later, circa at 14:25 and 18:00. Why the water channels are there in the first place, is unknown.
Nevertheless, with all this in mind, the multiple entrance hypothesis, only makes it realistic. This is, in my opinion, not a hypothesis anymore. It is a fact, especially with all this evidence. It is only a matter of time when we will discover a second or third entrance that is going directly to the Ravne tunnels. If we are going to discover it from inside, we should follow the side tunnels, but especially the side tunnels with dry walls, in my opinion. It is logical that all entrances link to the original tunnels, because 1) it is easier to follow and 2) effective. It may seem like a labyrinth, but I think that almost all of the tunnels in Ravne have their own purposes. Nevertheless, as always, more research is needed when it comes to the Ravne tunnels, but at least we may conclude that there are more entrances to the Ravne tunnels, just waiting to be discovered. When it comes to the tunnel that was explored in 2012, there is no more information on it, and it was totally abandoned after that. It would be nice to see some excavations there in the future, only then will we come closer to solving this puzzle.
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Djani Behram is a researcher of ancient places around the world, mostly in Bosnia and Herzegovina. He is also the ambassador of the Archaeological Park: Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation and has volunteered at the Bosnian pyramids for six years now. He also has good experiences with the Bosnian pyramids and archaeological sites in the region. In addition, he owns one of the biggest sites about the Bosnian pyramids, which is posting news and photographs almost every day.
March 11, 2017, one day after the Press Conference where Dr. Konstantin Korotkov confirmed the existence of the Bosnian Pyramids (Source), Dr. Semir Osmanagich sent me an email. He asked me if I could try to include an article from SarajevoTimes that was about the confirmation by Dr. Korotkov. I wrote that I would try, and I made a small plan. First, I would try to edit the Wikipedia-article and include it there, and if they removed it, then I would try with the diplomatic way – with discussions. As we all know, the Wikipedia-article on the Bosnian Pyramids is really subjective, and it would have been nice to have a balance to the article. Previously I have tried three times, now, one year later, I return to try the fourth time. Last time I got banned for three months. I could not edit the Wikipedia-articles regarding the Bosnian Pyramids, and if I did I would get blocked they would suspend my account.
I wrote a paragraph on the Wikipedia-page, where I wrote that there were many energy investigations in the Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids, and that Dr. Korotkov confirmed them recently: ”There is no doubt that Bosnian pyramids and tunnels are remains of unknown but highly developed civilization, and staying in a prehistoric underground tunnel Ravne has a strong positive impact on the emotional and physiological status of all visitors. (Source).”
Ten minutes later (!) all of it got deleted. It was deleted by a guy named ‘’Doug Weller.’’ Here is his reason of why my paragraph got deleted: Yeah, and Konstantin Korotkov, takes photos of the soul leaving the body – anything but a reliable source for archaeology. ‘’ I know that this is a controversial topic, but why would he paint the whole man in a negative way? Let us take a look on who Dr. Korotkov is.
Professor Konstantin Korotkov is a quantum physicist and computer science engineer. He is a professor at the Department of Computer Science and Biophysics at the State University for Information Technology, Mechanics and Optics in Sent Petersburg, Russia. He is the Deputy Director of the Research Institute for Health in Sent Petersburg. He is the Chairman of the Association for medicinal and applied bioelectrography. He has published more than 200 scientific articles in leading international magazines in physics and biology. He owns 17 patents in the field of biophysics. He has presented in 43 countries and participated in more than 100 international conferences. He is the author of nine books translated into several languages. His EPC/GDV technique is accepted by the Russian Ministry of Health and is certified in Europe and used by more than 1000 doctors all around the world. He researched many megalithic locations in the world as well as the energy of the Egyptian and Mexican Pyramids.
Nevertheless, I moved to plan B; the diplomatic way by discussing if the confirmation by Dr. Korotkov could be added to the article (Source). I pointed out that Dr. Korotkov confirmed the Bosnian Pyramids and what his degrees are. 20 minutes later I got an answer by a guy named ”Boing! Said Zebedee.” He wrote this: ”You again (Sic!)? Provide reliable peer-reviewed academic source.” I have two problems with this comment. 1) He is rejecting Dr. Korotkov as a scientist, which is ridiculous, 2) he is telling me to provide peer-reviewed academic sources, but I have counted at least 15 out of 41 sources that are not peer-reviewed and that are made by ordinary journalists, regardless if they support the Bosnian Pyramid project or not. Some of the sources do not even work any longer. Four sources (!) are from the last three years. It seems like their article is stuck in past, because a lot has been done since the pyramids were discovered. If they do not use peer-reviewed articles, then why don’t they allow me to include something important and recent in the Wikipedia-article?
I did point this out to the the Wikipedia-editors. Then they got angry. The same guy told me this: ”If you restart the old argument again as we try again to get woo-woo nonsense included in this article as if it were a fact, you will be topic banned from the article again.” I have two problems with this answer. 1) It is not nonsense, but a fact, if someone is using artificial instruments to measure phenomenons! 2) Recently, the Wikipedia-page is asking people for donations, so it can survive without advertisements. I am a frequent user of Wikipedia, both at home and at school. However, why would someone pay the page, when there are so rude editors that make threats after just 20 minutes of discussions? I know that this is a NGO, but they are dependent on donations from ordinary people to survive without advertisements. Well, I have learned that I have my freedom of speech. The freedom of speech is also central in the Human Rights (Source). I did not vandalize the Wikipedia-page or anything. If I did, I would have understood. But I showed them respect and gave a suggestion, where they just answered rude to me, and it ended in a ban.
Nevertheless, I continued pushing. I pointed out that Dr. Korotkov is an academic, and that the article is written by a reliable news source. SarajevoTimes, is one of the biggest Bosnian news portals in English. Again, the guy named ”Boing! said Zebedee” answered the same as before, but now he added that he does not have patience for people that do not follow Wikipedia’s sourcing requirements. As if they do! I was about to make an answer to this individual, but I couldn’t. I got banned. This time I got banned indefinitely. If I try to edit the Bosnian Pyramid articles they may block me from editing anything. A person named ”Acroterion,” commented this: ”(…) since you appear to have not purpose on Wikipedia but to promote fringe theories about the Bosnian pyramid claims.” This answer is problematic because of two reasons: 1) The existence of special activity in the Bosnian Pyramids is too overwhelming to just be a some kind of fringe, 2) By including one article, where an academic is confirming the pyramids is not promotion, that is a fact. The Wikipedia-article is too subjective, and that is problematic. Why is it problematic? The Wikipedia-article is for instance promoting lies, for example that the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation is still funded by the local authorities and that Dr. Osmanagich is using this project for political gain. Still to this day, Dr. Osmanagich is not involved in politics, and he has denied that he will in the future. They are doing literally everything to paint Dr. Osmanagich, the project and those that are involved in a negative way. An encyclopedia’s job is to inform, not to paint something or someone in a negative way. Nevertheless, I backed off, because they would have blocked me if I tried to do something. They have the power to do so. I now have evidence of how the Wikipedia-editors are, especially when they ban someone after only two hours.
Graham Hancock, researcher and the author of ”Fingerprints of the Gods, has also been painted in a negative way. They are stating that his work is viewed as pseudoarchaeology, because his work has not been peer reviewed by an academic nor published in academic journals. I know that it is important to protect archaeological and historic sites around the world, but when was it illegal to make one’s own hypothesis regarding the past? Science is by the people and for the people. It is scary that a few individuals have so much power on the information. Many people around the world are using Wikipedia every single day, and the way they are treating researchers is absurd. Universities are centers for new ideas and theories – things that are making us go forward. Many universities are also researching controversial stuff, for instance if there is life on Mars (Source), or if the Neanderthals were vegetarians (Source). This is not the way someone should treat other researchers. Ordinary people should also be allowed to research stuff around the planet. Graham Hancock is even holding a bachelor’s degree in sociology.
Nevertheless, in my opinion, the Wikipedia-article on the Bosnian Pyramids should be perhaps written again from the start, or that it totally reforms into something more objective. They need to include recent discoveries. There are a lot of articles on the internet on the Bosnian Pyramids in the recent years. I do not see a problem including articles that are from a trusted news station – the Wikipedia-editors have done it in the ”Bosnian pyramid claims” article. Furthermore, they should listen more to the people, and not paint other individuals or projects in a negative. They may deny something based on the sources, but if there are other sources from trustworthy news stations and that are statements made by serious scientists like Dr. Korotkov, then they should include them. On the Wikipedia-article regarding global warming (which is a real, and is a problem for the world), they included scientists that think that global warming is caused by natural processes (Source). Perhaps they should do the same with the Bosnian Pyramids article? Jock Doubleday already tried to make a WikiNews article which contains all the scientists that have participated on the International Conferences on the Bosnian Pyramids, but it got rejected multiple times by the editors (Source) There is no doubt in my mind that the article is too subjective, and that it should be edited so it is more objective. We shall see what will happen in the future. Regardless of the outcome, we will continue the research on the Bosnian Pyramids.
The Bosnian Pyramids were discovered in 2005, by Dr. Semir Osmanagich. Dr. Osmanagich later established the Archaeological Park: Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation, which has been researching the Bosnian Pyramids for twelve years now. Moreover, the foundation has spent thousands of hours on research of the Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids. With all this, hundreds of researchers have visited the pyramids in Visoko, and conducted their own research, often with their own artificial instruments. Most of them have conducted that there is something special regarding the pyramids in Visoko, and that they should be researched more. With Dr. Konstantin Korotkov confirming the Bosnian Pyramids, March 10, 2017, it is time for the scientific community to take this project seriously: Dr. Korotkov confirming the Bosnian Pyramids.
Dr. Korotkov is one of many that has confirmed the existence of the Bosnian Pyramids. The Archaeological Park: Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation has hosted five conferences in total; 2008, 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014. At the conferences we have historians, archaeologists, anthropologists, physicists, engineers, geologists and biologists. These fields have made their own contributions to the project. The History, as we know it, is changing and we are going further into the past than the history books are teaching us. We do this with sites like Göbekli Tepe, which is probably 12 000 years old World’s Oldest Temple to Be Restored. Thousands of years older before the development of agriculture, which happened around Mesopotamia, if we follow the original history: Source.
Every time someone may revolutionize something, they shut him/her down. There are a lot of examples of such in history; Alfred Wegener, Albert Einstein, Gregor Mendel, Nicholas Copernicus, Heinrich Schliemann, Charles Darwin, Galileo Galilei, Nikola Tesla etc. These geniuses got rejected at first, but later they revolutionized science and we moved forward with our knowledge. It is time for the historians to be open, and to share the knowledge with everyone. They should not shut down people that are thinking out of the box. Those that are thinking out of the box, are usually those that make the most contributions to science.
The European Association of Archaeologists released a statement in 2006, calling the Bosnian Pyramids a ‘’cruel hoax.’’ Despite this, the project has continued with its research. With the research of the energy aspects in the Valley, it has been concluded that there is something there. There is no doubt about that. A lot of researchers like Heikki Savolainen, Paolo Debortolis, Slobodan Mizdrak, Goran Marjanovic, Hrvoje Zujic etc. have concluded that there are strong energetic (ultrasound, electromagnetism etc.) frequencies at the Bosnian Pyramids and tunnels. One of the articles discussing the energy aspect of the Bosnian Pyramids: Electromagnetic mechanism of the ultrasound on the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun (Visoćica Hill).
In addition to this, hundreds of independent researchers and volunteers have visited the Bosnian Pyramids and made their own conclusions, which are interesting. The Summer Camp for volunteers, have produced three interesting archaeological reports (2012, 2013, 2014) regarding the Bosnian Pyramids. I personally have made a lot of articles regarding the Bosnian Pyramids, which are, for instance, discussing the Ravne tunnels with logical arguments. Nevertheless, this project has made a lot of project since it started in 2005. Perhaps it is time for the association to visit the pyramids? Perhaps they should make their own excavations and research?
Egyptian geologist, Dr. Ali Barakat, made his own conclusions regarding the Bosnian Pyramids, which I want to quote: ”The observed hills (Visočica , Plješevica, Buci) are most likely natural hills that were later modified in places by human activities, possibly during several historical episodes. The traces of such modifications have been either overprinted by later cultures, or by simple erosive tectonic processes, which are rather significant and far-reaching in a complex of the geographical, cultural and geological system, as seen in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Even though, there is a compelling evidence of the existence of the pyramid-shaped, man-made hill-forms in Bosnia, the results are still inconclusive and require further detailed geological, geophysical, tectonic and most importantly, archaeological studies.” The European Association of Archaeologists should definitely visit the Bosnian Pyramids and make their own conclusion, because clearly, there is something there. As I have always written in these kinds of articles, the site still needs a lot of research, and scientists should not shut down something immediately, like they did in 2006. Furthermore, a lot has been discovered since 2006. I am including his report in this article: Dr. Barakat Bosnian Pyramid Report.
The Bosnian Pyramids should also be taken seriously by the Bosnian Government on all levels. In the last years, the foundation has financed itself. I know that the country of Bosnia and Herzegovina is in trouble, when it comes to poverty, unemployment, tensions etc. The National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina has had to close its doors for three years, after opening again in 2015, because of donations, especially from the US embassy: Source. Ever since the civil war in the 1990s, the politicians of Bosnia and Herzegovina are doing little to preserve archaeological and historic sites such as Daorson, Badanj Cave, Stecci etc. Efforts by NGO, such as Archaeological Park: Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation, Arheon etc., should be supported. It does not need to be economic support, but promoting these organizations, so that their efforts are being appreciated. And those that are attacking the Archaeological Park: Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation, should also know that they are promoting other historic sites of Bosnia and Herzegovina, such as Stari Most in Mostar, Obelisk in Olovo, Stecci, Vranduk Castle etc. In addition to this, the Foundation has made its own Park, called Ravne 2, so that visitors may enjoy themselves in Visoko longer, which is also promoting the touristic aspect of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The smartest thing for the politicians in Bosnia and Herzegovina is to promote these organizations, so that the organizations may promote and research more historic sites, so that it also promotes the tourism aspects, which also makes the country richer because it creates labour, which is important in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
This project will last for generations to come, and now that the foundation has established evidence that there is something going on in the Valley, especially regarding the energy -aspect, they should be taken seriously. The next would be that archaeologists and historians come to Visoko and do their own research at the Bosnian Pyramids. Only then they may conclude if something is natural or man-made. No matter what the results are, we still have evidence regarding the energy aspects, which proves that the structures are special and good for human health. This is a serious project – it has always been – and it will be like that in the future. Only time and research will tell when there will be found more evidence for the existence of historic structures/pyramids in Visoko, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
April 8, 2016, I published an article which I called The Mysterious Artefacts of the Bosnian Pyramids. This article has received a lot of positive comments and there has been overwhelmingly a lot of readers, especially from the USA. Thousands and thousands of people have taken their time to read my article regarding the artefacts of the Bosnian pyramids. As a thank you and because all of us love science, especially history, I have decided to make a second part of this theme. This article will be built the same way as the previous one and will act as a continuation on the previous article.
Before we start researching some of the artefacts together, I want to state a very important point; this article are only ideas, only for research-purposes. Nothing in this article is concluded. It is open for everyone to participate and use the articles I make as sources in their own articles or studies, especially if they make their own hypothesis and conclude something based on their research. I believe that it is important to share our ideas, especially when it comes to science, because without science, we may as well just be stuck in past. Science has given us some answers, but it has also opened more paths – paths to more questions. That is the beauty of research. No ideas in science should be shut down by other people – we should have open, scientific and philosophical ideas, then we extend our knowledge about our past.
In history it is important that we think in the point of view of our ancients. For some of us, ordinary looking stones are just stones, but for the people of the past, these were for instance used for rituals or as tools. It is difficult to think in others point of view, especially when it comes to the past, but we should try as hard as we can, because only then we can understand why people used some of the artefacts. We may never have answers to all our questions of how the ancients acted, for instance the Olmec heads, where the historians and archaeologists are still debating regarding their purpose. In this article, I will give my point of view regarding the different artefacts, while we think in the ancient’s point of view, so that we can get an idea easily.
It is important to state that there are many reasons of why there has not been found so many mind-blowing artefacts in the Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids. 1) Many of the artefacts have probably been used by previous cultures, 2) many of the artefacts are thousands of years old and may have been destroyed, or are covered deep by debris yet to be discovered and 3) the artefacts have been taken and/or sold by someone. An anonymous source, which is a local, has stated that after the pyramids were discovered many artefacts, especially from the entrance of the Ravne tunnels were taken out and sold by the locals, so that the locals can finance themselves. This is understandable, because the Bosnian economy is very weak, and it was very weak in 2006. However, there are still locals that are selling artefacts that they found around the pyramids. A person is for instance selling sandstone blocks from the Bosnian Moon pyramid. The Archaeological Park: The Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation cannot do anything about this, because it is private land. By all these, there are several problems and reasons of why there has not been found that many artefacts. Also, archaeology is a slow process, and the foundation is financing themselves by for instance tickets, souvenirs, donations books etc. It will take decades to uncover many of the artefacts from the ancients, but the artefacts that has been recovered is a good start. Now, I hope that you will enjoy this article, and after you have read it, you will research these things even more, no matter if you are the one that supports the project or a sceptic – this project is open for everyone, and I am open for all kinds of ideas.
Let us start with some similar artefacts that were found on the bottom of the Bosnian Sun pyramid. The land that the artefacts were found is private, and it belongs to Adil Music. Apparently he was building something at his land, likely stairs, and he found some very interesting blocks. The material of the blocks is sandstone, nothing special. However, inside the sandstone blocks there is a granite-like material, the video. Later he did his own excavations at the side of his house, where he found more of these blocks, but they were much thinner and perhaps with a different material. Video can be found here: Spontaneous Archaeology on the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun.
It is very common that blocks have been removed so that people can make the foundation for their houses, and many of them even used the blocks in the building process. Therefore, most of the Bosnian Sun pyramid’s bottom has been destroyed. There has been more cultural activity in the area, but I will write about it later. As we can see based on the video and the photographs, there are rectangular and perfectly shaped blocks. It is very weird that there is a granite-like material inside a sandstone block, and it raises some questions: Could the builders have used natural materials and placed sandstone on them, which they ‘’baked’’ later, making these blocks? It is not weird that people used many of the blocks from the Sun pyramid for their own houses, because 1) it was cheap and 2) already shaped.
The next artefact is also a block from the Bosnian Sun pyramid. This artefact was photographed by Jock Doubleday in 2015. The block is much bigger than the sandstone block, and it seems like it is a different material, perhaps a combination of thin concrete and clay. On top it is textured, perhaps by nature or by man.
My guess is that the thinner parts of the blocks are a ‘’cover’’ for the bigger concrete blocks, so that the concrete blocks do not get destroyed. These are protection blocks. We can clearly see that on archaeological trench 5B, on the Bosnian Sun pyramid, located near the bottom of the pyramid. It is also possible that some of these blocks may be found in the middle of the concrete blocks on the Bosnian pyramids, which got destroyed in the process of a dynamite explosion. However, it still needs more research.
The block that was photographed by Jock Doubleday is most likely broken and moved by someone. It was also probably used in modern times by people. We can find more of these blocks around the Bosnian Sun pyramid, and if they are laying on the grass, then it is logical that they were moved. The Bosnian Sun pyramid has different materials – sandstone, clay and concrete, but this article is not directly about the Bosnian Sun pyramid, but the artefacts, let us continue with the next one. If one wants to take a closer look on the concrete of the Bosnian Sun pyramid, please watch this video: Ancient concrete on the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun.
It is important to include some of the artefacts that have been excavated by the foundation. These artefacts are not from the builders of the Bosnian pyramids, but recent cultures, for instance the Butmir culture. The Butmir culture was a major bronze age culture which existed in Butmir, near Sarajevo, in vicinity of Ilidza in Bosnia and Herzegovina, dating from the Neolithic period. It is characterized by its unique pottery (Source: Wikipedia). Ildza is close to Visoko, only some kilometers. There has been found over 20 000 (Source: Ancient-Wisdom) pieces of pottery in the area, and this only proves that there has been a lot of cultural activity in the area – and I really believe that they used the blocks of the pyramid for their own buildings. Because there are no records of the Bosnian pyramids by these cultures, the pyramids were probably full of vegetation also then. But there is no doubt that for instance the Butmir got their inspiration for one artefact; the small pyramid, which I have already written in my previous article. Perhaps they got more inspiration for some of the artefacts and these artefacts may be discovered in the future.
What is weird is that there has not been found artefacts from the Butmir or Neolithic cultures in the Ravne tunnels. There has only been found a medieval oil lamp, which I have already discussed in this article: Discussing the Ravne tunnels and the mine hypothesis, which means that the Ravne tunnels are ancient. Before we go underground to the Ravne tunnels, let us finish the pyramids first.
Now, let us move on to the plateau of the Bosnian Sun pyramid, where a piece of a sandstone blocks was discovered in 2006, at the beginning of the excavations. This piece is obviously broken, but one can clearly see that it is modified by someone, probably by the builders of the Bosnian Sun pyramid.
It seems like the Bosnian Sun pyramid is built out of three different materials; clay, concrete and sandstone. Sandstone is usually on top, like a cover, then comes clay, and in some parts concrete, then again clay and it goes like that downwards. This is very interesting, and it may give us an understanding of how the structure is built or modified. More pieces like these may be found all over the Bosnian Sun pyramid.
Another artefact that was found at the beginning of the excavations on the Bosnian Sun pyramid, was a piece of concrete. However, the interesting part is that this piece is connected with a crystal. The artefact was discovered in 2006 at the bottom of the pyramid. At the back of the artefact, it is a darker colour, which means that the dark part was probably facing the pyramid
In my point of view, this artefact has gotten a lot of erosion, especially from the thick soil. The concrete and crystal was probably connected with each other in the past, but the other parts got destroyed. It could also be because of human-intervention, especially dynamite. If we look at one of the drilling-samples, we will see small crystals. Crystals, especially quarts, were mixed with clay and conglomerate, to make these blocks, perhaps because of the energetic effect.
Let us move to the Bosnian Moon pyramid, where several interesting artefacts were discovered. The next artefact is a fine piece of sandstone which is clearly man-made, and it is a piece of a bigger block.
The artefact may have been a part of some steps, which were probably destroyed by erosion. Or it may be a water system, to prevent water for staying on the blocks of the Moon pyramid – in fact, many have argued this. The blocks are inclined to the structure, and the reason why is because the builders or those who shaped the hill into a pyramid, wanted a drainage system. Often, the water is not staying on the blocks of the pyramids in Visoko, it goes downwards. Many have noticed, that even when it is raining, the blocks are not getting wet, but mostly dry, and that there are only dams on the top of the soil. Worth a thought.
The next artefact is a bigger sandstone block. I am including this in the article because it has a fine rectangular formation. The block was probably moved by someone recently. Smaller blocks like these are being sold by a man and the block I photographed was near the man’s ‘’shop.’’ Like I said before, the foundation cannot do anything with this right now, because it is private land, but I recommend that no one buy these kind of blocks by anyone in the future. These blocks belong to the public; the scientific community, so that we can try to answer the questions that are in front of us. If you want to see one of the smaller pieces of the blocks, you will find that in my previous article about the artefacts of the Bosnian pyramids.
The following artefact looks like a tool, and it was found under the soil on the bottom of the Bosnian Moon pyramid in 2006. It may be an ordinary stone, but what is interesting is that is fits in someone’s hand. Additionally the shape is interesting, and it seems like it was ‘’cut’’ in the past, if you look to the right side. You will see similar artefacts like this one in the future, where many of them can be found in the Ravne tunnels.
In addition, the artefact could also have served as an instrument of some kind. If you hit this stone with another, it may create a special sound. I have not tried it, but if the article can be found in foundation’s laboratory, it should be tried. The artefact may also have served other cultures, but this is unknown. More research and excavations should be conducted – and it is important to secure all the artefacts as soon as they are found. Too much artefacts have been taken from the site, which is very negative. The pyramids can always be reconstructed, the artefacts, however, cannot be that-
The following artefact was discovered under the soil at the Vratnica Tumulus. This is sandstone and it has a long shape. It was perhaps used a tool of some kind, or for rituals, for instance that it was an instrument. There are many similar artefacts like this one, and one will see that later in this article.
It is time to move underground; the mysterious Ravne tunnels. As we know, the Ravne tunnels were discovered in 2006, and soon after excavations began and the foundation has been cleaning the tunnels ever since. Before we begin, it is important to state that many artefacts, especially at the beginning of the tunnel, has disappeared, probably taken out by someone. An anonymous source, which is a local in the area and has been following the pyramid project since 2005, has told me that many artefacts has been sold on different private markets. It is unknown how many artefacts have been taken out. The anonymous source did buy one artefact for an expensive price (according to him/her) and he/she showed it to me in the summer of 2016. It appears to be an interesting artefact with a unique shape. I did not have permission, by the source, to post the photo on this article and I need to respect that – that is, in fact, the ethical standards for journalists, even for me that is doing this like a hobby. Nevertheless, this is the artefact from the source prove that artefacts have been taken out and sold to other people, which again destroys traces to the civilization/culture of those who were there when the pyramids were built or shaped. With all this in mind, we can start with the artefacts that has been discovered in the Ravne tunnels.
The following artefact was discovered in 2013, when the volunteers were cleaning the tunnels that is today leading to megalith K5. For me, this tunnels is perhaps one of the most mysterious tunnels that has been cleaned and secured so far – mostly because of the side tunnels. At this same tunnel, the ‘’liver’’ megalith can also be found and I have already written about that megalith in my previous artefact-article. In addition, the tunnel that is leading to K5, is also leading to the ‘’Rabbit hole’’ tunnels, which have had some kind of human-intervention, no doubt about it. Please read more about this tunnel in this article: Tunnels to the Sun: Exploring Mysterious Ravne tunnels in Bosnia.
Nevertheless, the following artefacts is a sandstone object that has a very interesting shape. It made headlines in some online newspaper, for instance Haber.ba: Article. The object displays symmetry and balance in design, and it fits comfortably in someone’s hand. Additionally, there are also some symbols to be found on this artefact, but they are not that clear because of erosion.
This is an artefact that is shaped by a culture. Nature does not produce these kinds of sandstone stones, especially not stones where it is empty in the middle. What this artefact was used for, is a difficult question to answer. Perhaps it was some kind of art or it could have been used for some rituals, because it was found close to K5 and – in my opinion – the megalith is big enough for rituals, because two people can easily lay on that megalith without being discomforted. The symbols are really interesting. They do not mean any word, but they represent perhaps the different megaliths that can be found in Ravne. I have counted seven symbols that may resemble a megalith, perhaps there are more, but guess what; there are seven different megaliths that have been found from the entrance to the Ravne tunnels – megaliths with a rounded figure. Additionally, this is one of the artefacts that may have been made by those that built the pyramids and/or dug the tunnels, because it has a similar material to many of the other arefacts that have been found, especially in the Ravne tunnels. As we saw in the previous article, many of the artefacts are made of sandstone. Sandstone is also a good material to build structures; University of Sydney, for example, was built out of sandstone. There has also been found a 17 000 year old sandstone oil lamp in the caves of Lascaux, France: Source Wikipedia. Nevertheless, the symbols may mean something totally different, nothing is concluded and the artefact is of course open for research and discussions.
The following artefact was discovered in 2012 and it is a ‘’heart shaped’’ artefact, because of its resemblance to the ‘’romantic heart,’’ we often text or draw to someone. The colour of the artefact was interesting, because on the surface it appeared to be a painted image, visible when wet, but it quickly faded to a pale and faded image of what was there.
In my opinion, the artefact has nothing to do with a heart or love. The romantic heart appeared in medieval times: What is the origin of the heart symbol? The ancients we are dealing with here, did know a lot about anatomy, because many of the megaliths resemble some body parts, as I wrote in my previous article. In addition, the ancients needed to survive – with that comes killing animals and eating them, and there they could have seen how the heart looks like. The artefact has nothing to do with hearts. Period. Additionally, the before and after-look of the artefact is not that special either, because many of the stones in Ravne are brown inside the tunnel, but pale out when outside. But it can tell us how amazing it is to be in Ravne, because people feel amazing and perhaps the stones are reflecting exactly this. The one thing that caught my attention was the circular formation in the middle of the stone, that is connected to another circular formation on the top right of the stone. Perhaps the ancient had their ways to colour the stones so that it may be seen when the stones are in tunnels where it is wet and has a high concentration of negative ions (Source: Ancient-Origins) . The formations look like orbs. Nevertheless, that being said, you can be the judge. Let us move on.
The next artefact is a megalith and yet again we move to anatomy, because the artefact has a strong resemblance to an eye. Again we see texturing on top and to the right where the broken part is, it is flat. The texturing can also be found on many of the blocks across the Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids, which is fascinating. Clearly there is some human-intervention, because the artefact was found under the conglomerate and the conglomerate can not shape stones like these. It is made of the same material as many other megaliths in Ravne. It would be interesting to see what the colour of the artefact will be if we take it out of the tunnels. It would probably get pale and resemble the colour of the sandstone blocks that can be found on the Moon pyramid, and perhaps it was built by the builders of the Moon pyramid.
I have already written about the resemblance between anatomy and megaliths in my previous article, but it seems like someone placed it exactly here because if you get this deep inside the tunnels, it is good for someone’s eyes. If we follow the Ravne tunnels, first there will be a brain, then a face, then stomach, then liver etc. It is really impressive. There is no coincidence when it comes to the megaliths; someone placed them there, or they made them on site, because 1) strong resemblance to body parts, 2) the conglomerate is rather pressing down the bigger megaliths rather than shaping them, and if the conglomerate did shape them, we would have had different megaliths and they would not resemble anything special than boulders, and 3) the energy research that has been conducted with artificial instruments prove that the megaliths are energy potent places: Heikki Savolainen about the energy aspect in the Ravne tunnels and the Bosnian pyramids. I have photographed the megaliths many times, and every time there are some small white dots coming from the megaliths, which is really impressive. Regardless, let us move on to other artefacts that has been found in Ravne.
The next artefact was discovered in 2006, where the first intersection is, approximately where the ‘’egg’’ megalith can be found (photo below). It seems like it is a mould and it looks like there is traces of molten oxidized metal.
Well, it looks as if the hole was cut into a normal stone. It may look like one of the moulds that I have written about in my previous article. It could have been an oil lamp of some kind, perhaps some thousands of years old. The stone also has a weird shape, because it looks like it had a much sharper shape in the past. Regardless, this stone is still a mystery.
The following artefact is a language tile that was discovered in 2013. It seems like it is a broken piece of something else. This tile is interesting because it has symbols on it and it looks like someone made them in the past.
The symbols has been analyzed and it has been researched if these are Nordic Runes, early Bosnian/Middle Kingdom hybrid alphabet etc. According to the Archaeological Report of 2013, the foundation successfully identified four runes – and their translations are God, Water, Ice and Joy. However, this still needs a lot of research, and that the foundation does not have a complete match of the symbols yet. But if the translation of these four symbols is right, then it would be completely logical. 1) People have always believed in something that is bigger than themselves; a natural religion or a religion where God is the center. Many cultures did also sacrifice for their own Gods – so that the word God is found, is plausible. 2) Bosnia and Herzegovina is laying in the heart of Balkan. To the west one have Croatia and the Adriatic Sea; to the east, the Black Sea and direct access to Asia; to the north, Nordic countries, and to the south, Greece, the center of antiquity that would influence other cultures years to come. In the center of the Bosnia and Herzegovina, one has many different rivers, and the energetic purposes are also connected to water, because there are a lot of underground water streams in the area. 3) The Northern-Europe was covered in ice and there is no doubt that the ancients who made the tile and perhaps the pyramids could access thick ice easily. One of the few places where there was no ice was the Balkan-region (except for the mountains) – this means that this region was one of the best places to stay, because of its hot climate compared to for example regions of Germany, Great Britain, Norway etc. And finally; 4) Joy, this is what life means, to have fun and that people live together in peace and harmony – nothing special, but still, it is the basis for human-kind. Instead of killing and hating on each other, everyone lives in peace, perhaps this was the message from our ancients. Nevertheless, this is an interesting artefact and I am excited for further research. (Translation found in the Bosnian Pyramid Archaeological Report for 2013)
As we know, there may be found many different writings in the Ravne tunnels, and there are some reports and articles that are trying to explain the meaning of the different symbols. One article is comparing the Runic symbols in Ravne with the writings of Vinca and Hungarian symbols: The article: Similarity between Vinca, Hungarian Runic signs and signs found inside the Bosnian Pyramids, older than Egypt. pyramids. Other researchers are trying to compare the writings that are found in Ravne with symbols that may be found in Göbekli Tepe, right now one of the oldest archaeological sites that is recognized by the archaeologists and historians: The Article: Bosnian Pyramids and Göbekli Tepe. Nevertheless, let us move on to the artefacts of the Bosnian pyramids.
The next artefact was found in 2014, and it is called the ‘’butchery stone,’’ because the stone was tested and it produced evidence of blood on the surface and within the incised lines. Unfortunately, they were unable to determine the age of the artefact and whether it was animal of human blood. The lines that can be found on stones are common in the Ravne tunnels. However, this is perhaps the first time there has been found old blood on one of them.
The ‘’butchery stone’’ is another evidence that someone went inside the tunnels in the past, and because they were unable to extract the DNA to find out whether it was animal or human blood, then these traces are very old. There are three very important questions here: 1) The age and who it comes from, 2) How it got there, and 3) Why are there lines on the artefact? There are many stones that have been excavated from Ravne that contain lines, sometimes these lines are like some kind of art (including a photo below). And if it was an animal that got hurt, we would perhaps have found the skeleton, but we did not find it. This is one of the artefacts that tells us why the Ravne tunnels are so mysterious, it really blows my mind. I am unable to answer these questions and the only way we can answer them is by more research and excavations. It is of course allowed to hypothesize, but I am too unsure to that when it comes to this artefact. If one want to read more about the incised lines on stones, please do so here: The Article. Remember that this article is only hypothesizing, and that nothing is concluded yet.
I am not sure when the following artefact was discovered and my guess is that it was discovered in Ravne, because we find a lot of these kinds of sandstone stones when we excavate the filling material. The artefact is a bit long and it seems like it was shaped by someone in the past.
In my opinion, this resembles a xylophone. Why? In 2014, I was in a laboratory with three volunteers, two of them were from USA and Australia. One of the volunteers placed many of these long artefacts in order and started hitting them carefully with some other thinner and smaller artefacts. These stones produced some sounds. Perhaps these kinds of stones were made for joy; for rituals, for their own parties, singing etc. Almost all cultures have their own special instruments, and the shape and size of the sandstone stones do look like an older version of a xylophone – just a hypothesis.
We have been founding many symmetrical blocks with different sizes and compositions. Some stones have a 90 degree angle and it seems like the blocks was meant to fit together with other similar stones. We have found six stones that are very similar, but there has been found a lot more with other materials, like sandstone. The blocks tell us that there was a concentrated culture or civilization that was living here. Again, all this is too much of a ‘’coincidence,’’ that nature can produce; this is proof of human-intervention.
It is important to research what material the blocks are and where it was found. If the sandstone blocks were found in the filling material, then it perhaps belongs to the culture that filled all the tunnels, and if it is found in the conglomerate, then it belongs to the civilization or culture that made or shaped the pyramids. Just by looking at the material of some of the artefacts, we may answer some questions of who were here before us. Now, the filling material is very complicated and I do not want to discuss it in this article, but it is clear that someone wanted to fill the tunnels so that no one would find it later. The reason why is unclear and it still needs a lot of research. And please note: this project is only eleven year old, it will get us decades to research all this. People have researched the pyramids in Egypt for hundreds of years, without finding clear answers to many questions. With that being said, let us move on.
Another artefact that was found in the Ravne tunnels is a small sandstone stone that has symmetrical holes. Holes in stones is normal to find in nature. However, this artefact was found in the Ravne tunnels, and another questions rises: How can nature produce these kind of holes when the stones are so small and located in tunnels? It is a difficult question to answer, and we may say that it has some human-intervention. It seems like the holes are going from the biggest to smallest, which is interesting.
What the artefact was used for, is still a mystery, and it still needs a lot of research if we are going to understand the mystery behind this artefact.
In 2012, volunteers of the Bosnian Pyramid Project, discovered a monolith. Source: Archaeological Report for 2012. It was discovered in one of the side tunnels in Ravne. The material is sandstone, and there are some apparent carvings on the artefact. Clearly there is some human-intervention involved and the monolith could be a piece of a bigger artefact. And again we find holes on the artefact! Additionally, the carving may be some kind of symbols, but this still needs a lot of research.
One thing is certain: The Ravne tunnels just keeps getting more interesting for every article that is made and every scientific research that is conducted. It still needs a lot of research, if we are going to understand what the monolith was used for, and why there are holes on some of the different artefacts. What is interesting is that there are holes in smaller and bigger artefacts, making the tunnels and artefacts even more mysterious.
The following artefact fits perfectly in someone’s hand and was probably discovered in 2011. These stones are perhaps tools of some kind. It may be ordinary stones that were shaped so that they could have been used comfortably for some purposes, or they may just be stones. Again, because we find many of these kinds of stones, it may seems to ‘’coincidental’’ that it was all geological, because we are dealing with a very ancient culture here, that were deeply connected with nature, especially if we research the energy in the area, and how the air is so clean in Ravne without using any ventilation-systems, like we use in the modern day.
The next artefact is a foot stone. There has been found many stones that look like foots. This is not a part of a statue as there is no connection to an ankle. It is only in the shape of a human left foot, and it has similarities between modern human feet. In the future, it may be important for a forensic anthropologist to determine information as to sex, height and weight? If it does not have any connections to normal humans, then perhaps it is only a piece of art that has a meaning yet to be answered. Nevertheless, it still needs a lot of research.
The following artefact is a long sandstone blocks, which look like the long artefact that was perhaps used for xylophone. But the interesting part is that one of the stones do have a hole in the middle, and that small ropes can pass through it, and it looks like it was made to be like that.
The hole-part looks a lot like the parts of the tool-making mould, and it may say us that the same culture or civilizations were involved when it comes to these two artefacts – one which is sandstone and the other which is a normal stone with human-intervention. It is very interesting, but it still needs more research though.
The following photo is a photo of many different artefacts that are similar and that have been found in the Ravne tunnels. Like I wrote before, it is too concidental that everything here is natural, because nature does not produce the same shape and in some circumstances the same length of a stone. In Ravne one may found similar blocks with different materials or with the same material, which is very interesting.
What these stones were used for is unknown. But, we may say that there is clearly some human-intervention on some of the stones. My hypothesis is that the stones were pieces of tools or instruments. I hope that someone will visit the tunnels and perhaps Foundation’s Museum to research all this themselves and make their own opinion.
The next artefact is called ‘’The Brain,’’ because of its cracks. A local merchant, that was working close to the entrance of the Ravne tunnels, donated this artefact to the foundation. However, he would not disclose the exact location of where this artefact was found so that he/she could protect his trade in tourist crystals. The person only said that it was found in the area. Regardless, the artefact seems polished, but that it has cracked over the years. One can argue that the cracks were meant to be there all along. The small circle on the side of the artefact is interesting because it does not seem like it has been affected like the other parts of the artefact. The artefact’s weight is 5,8 kilograms (Bosnian Pyramid Report for 2014). Because the foundation could not identify the origin and location of the artefact because of secrecy by the local, it was decided to submit the object to a series of destructive cross sections to determine the inside structure.
In the process of cutting the stone, the stonemason made an observation that it was denser than an ordinary stone, possibly metal. When he saw the inside of the structure, he was amazed. His opinion was that the stone was appeared to be cast, poured, displaying tell tail swirls common in moulded materials. Inside of the stone there could be found a consistent texture, and the fine grained circle that we talking about earlier, seem to be the point with the white circle that was found inside the stone. The observations that were made by the stonemason are anecdotal, but impressions of a person familiar with cutting local stone and blocks. Without the location of this artefact, it does not produce a lot of evidence, but it may tell us that the ancients were active in other places too, because the material does look like a material that other artefacts contain, especially on the surface. I included the artefact because it is mysterious and that it needs a lot of research if we are going to be able to answer some of our questions; starting with the location of the artefact.
The following artefacts was also discovered in the Ravne tunnels, not exactly sure when. It is a small shape of a ball and plate. Both materials are sandstone and the colours are the same.
Again, we find mysterious artefacts where we do not know what they were used for. Now, someone would say that this is natural and that it was made thousands of years ago by waters. What they do not know, is that spherical objects was very common in the past. In South-Africa, there has been found numerous of spherical artefacts. The archaeologists on site, however, are calling them artefacts from cave men, but what they do not answer is how ordinary cave men shaped these spherical artefacts – it is still a mystery. Yes, the materials and sizes of the artefacts are different, but one have big similarities, especially the shape. If you want to read more about the spherical artefacts that were found in South-Africa, please do so here: Tool or weapon? New research throws light on stone artifacts’ use as ancient projectiles I do not think that the artefact that was found in Ravne represents a tool, because it is too small, but it may represent something else, perhaps some art. It still needs a lot of research.
We have now looked into some of the artefacts that has been discovered in the Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids. We have hypothesized and read about 40 artefacts in total, if we count the last article about the Bosnian pyramid artefacts. If we compare other artefacts that has been found around the world, we will see that they are similar, for instance the artefacts of Olmec. There are already people that are researching connections between the Bosnian pyramids and other civilizations/cultures around the world. As we go deeper into the tunnels and excavate more of the pyramids, we will find even more artefacts, which is certain. For us, these artefacts are only objects of the past, but for the ancients, these were their computers, instruments, boards, tools etc. The year is 2017; it will get decades to get to the end of this project and it will last generations to come. In addition, while 2016 was a shocking and dramatic year in some cases, we need to move on, together, without hate. We do not need to understand each other, but we need to share positivism and be good to one another. We need to do our part so that we can pass this planet in the best condition to the next generations. Because we indeed have one home, which is our planet. Let the 2017 be the year where there will be many discoveries of the past. The Bosnian pyramids still need a lot of research and everyone is open to give their own opinions on these artefacts and what their purposes are. It will not be easy to find all the answers and it will be a slow process, but with patience, we will have some answers on the table for everyone to see. All this is the beauty of scientific research. Yes, it takes time, but in the end, it will be worth it.
Djani Behram is a researcher of ancient places around the world, mostly in Bosnia and Herzegovina. He is also the ambassador of the Archaeological Park: Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation and has volunteered at the Bosnian pyramids for six years now. He also has good experiences with the Bosnian pyramids and archaeological sites in the region. In addition, he owns one of the biggest sites about the Bosnian pyramids, which is posting news and pictures almost every day. He also owns a YouTube channel, called TheBIHLover, which is posting a video almost every Wednesday.
In 2016, I went on an exploration journey to Stolac, Bosnia and Herzegovina, for one day, to explore the different Stecaks (plural: Stećci in Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian, often called Stecaks in English) and to make some videos for my channel (TheBIHLover). I went to three different locations, which are separated by some kilometers. The locations were Radimlja, Boljuni and Boskailo Harem. But firstly, if we are going to discuss and understand the Stecaks, we need to start with the original history – history that historians has discussed and researched for many years.
The Stecaks are located mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina, but also Croatia, Serbia and Montenegro. It has been estimated that there are 60 000 of them in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the rest of them (10 000) are found at the borders to Croatia, Serbia and Montenegro. They are found at more than 3300 sites, where over 90% of them are in a poor condition. There were probably even more of them, but many of them got destroyed by other cultures, especially Austro-Hungarian Empire were destroying them when they were building roads for transportation of different goods.
If we are going to follow the original history, then Stecaks were medieval tombstones and they started appearing in the 12th century and continued to increase until the Ottoman occupation at the beginning of the 16th century. Historians think that they were also a common tradition for the Bosnian Church, but perhaps also for some Bogomlis. At the start the historians thought that they belonged to the Bogmolis, but this theory has later been challenged. It is still discussed of who the Stecaks belonged to, however, many historians agree that it belongs to the Bosnian Church.
On some of them, you can also find the Bosnian Cyrillic, which was particularly used by the Bosnian Church, according to the historians. Although the writings started appearing later, probably in the 13th century and most of the Stecaks do not have any Bosnian Cyrillic on them at all (Wikipedia). Additionally there can be found many different symbols on them, and they are very interesting. The shape of the Stecaks are often rectangular, with a triangular shape on top. According to the original history, the triangular shape or a form of a chest, does not appear before the end of the 14th century. Additionally, many of them are placed on a plate, but also some of them are placed without any support on the ground, which is very interesting for many historians.
In addition, the Stecaks has been inscribed as an UNESCO World Heritage Site. However, it only includes 30 necropolises (a historical burial site) – of which 22 from Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2 from Croatia, 3 from Montenegro and 3 from Serbia (Source) The other 3270 are not included. If you want to take a look on the terrain of these 30 Stecaks, please do so here: (UNESCO Map)
Based on the historical facts that has been researched by historians in the past, for instance Nada Miletic in 1982 (Link) and Ante Milosevic in 1991 (Link), still many argue that the Stecaks still needs a lot of research, for instance Dejan Vemic states as follows at the beginning of his MA thesis: ”Although Stecci have been investigated for more than a century and thousands of them have been found many questions still arise. Many monuments have been only registered as existing, with no excavation; most of them have not been excavated archaeologically.” (Source)
In this article, I will focus on three different Stecak locations, two of them are documented by UNESCO. These locations are very interesting in my opinion. All of them are close to Stolac. Additionally, I will give my own opinion regarding the Stecaks at the end of this article.
It is a hot summer day in Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and I decided to visit some of the Stecak sides around Stolac. The first destination is the most known one when it comes to the Stecaks and it is Radimlja, a 40 minutes’ drive from Mostar and it is about 5 minutes from Stolac. Stolac is a very historical place and the first signs of a culture is the Badanj cave paintings, which were probably made circa 15 000 BCE. Daorson, an Illyrian acropolis is also nearby, which for many is a sign of advanced technology – many argue that the blocks are too perfect and that the tribe who made them had some kind of ancient technology. Additionally, Daorson is placed on a hill, which make them even more mysterious. Both of these important locations are only some minutes from Radimlja.
We (my grandfather and I) finally arrived to Radimlja. The first time I came here was with my parents in 2008 and at that time I was 9 years old. The ones that were looking after the Stecaks in Radimlja were charging tickets, approximately 3 US dollars. Additionally, they have made a fence that was going around the Stecaks. In 2008 there were none of these things above, just an ordinary Stecaks site – although it is one of the most researched Stecak sites in history.
The Radimlja necropolis has 133 tombstones, of which 63 of them is decorated with symbols – there are only about two Stecaks with the Bosnian Cyrillic (Source). It was even more tombstones in the area, but many of them got destroyed when the Austro-Hungarians were building the Capljina-Stolac road that is crossing the necropolis site in the middle. The building of the road started at the end of the 19th century. Today the Radimlja site is split into two sections. The form of the Stecaks is four sided (triangular), in a cross, many of them has a ‘’chest’’ on top and some totally flat. Many of them have plates under them. Some of the symbols that can be found is an anchor, grapes, flowers, spirals, circles and the most popular one; figures with a raised hand – this symbol is also placed on the Bosnian Marks (10 KM) (Link). In addition, from the Stecak site, you may see Daorson on the north-eastern hill. There is also a river nearby the Stecaks called ‘’Radimlja’’ that is running into the river ‘’Bregava.’’ This could indicate that there was an even larger river nearby in the past, but also that the site was under the sea once. This can be proved particularly by the flat terrain in the whole Radimlja-region.
In addition, there can also be found a Stecak where there is a man on a horse, hunting a deer and it looks very beautiful. Perhaps this could indicate that those who lived in the area visited the Badanj Cave in the past and found some artefacts and decided to honor them and place them on one of the Stecaks? Of course, they perhaps did not know anything about them, but they had an idea of how they lived? It can also indicate that those who made them wanted to honor those who were often riding horses and hunting food for the people. If we are going to follow the original history, then the Stecaks with symbols started appearing later, probably in the 14th century. Those that do not have any symbols are older, but perhaps the Stecaks that have symbols on them were without them at first, but were added later? Just some thoughts that struck me when I was there.
After I made a video and researched some of the Stecaks in Radimlja, we continued to Boljuni – which is even more interesting.
We drove for about 25 minutes from Stolac to Boljuni. The road was going up on a mountain and in an isolated area. Here there were some intense fights between the Bosnian-Serbs and Bosnian-Croats in the Bosnian war – only 5-10 kilometers from Boljuni you will find the ‘’border’’ of Republic of Serbia. Nevertheless, we were following the main road, called M17.3. At first we missed the road that was going directly to Boljuni necropolis, we returned and continued to Boljuni – luckily there were two signs that instructed us where we should drive in order to arrive to the location. We finally arrived, a family – that was on holiday and lived in their cottage – welcomed us. My main objective was to investigate, take some photos and make a video regarding the Boljuni Stecaks.
The Boljuni Stecaks were split into two parts, one that was going to the south (Boljuni I) and the other north-west (Boljuni II). First I went to the southern part. There are in total 273 Stecaks there (Source: The Mystery of Boljuni Book, 2012) – one of the biggest necropolises in the region! I walked slowly. There were a lot of insects and I was scared that I would confront a snake. The first Stecak that I saw was an amazing one. It had animal-figures on it with Bosnian Cyrillic! There were even more Stecaks where humans were riding horses and hunting animals. On the Stecak with the Bosnian Cyrillic, there can be found four people on it (on the side of it). The first thoughts that I had in Radimlja – that the Stecaks had connections with the Badanj Cave, were probably wrong. Those who lived in the region at that time were connected with nature. Nature was their key for everything for instance one of the most important things in life; food. In addition, here in Boljuni there are symbols of people holding hands (also on the Stecak with the Bosnian Cyrillic, picture bellow) which could mean that every one of them were dependent on other humans, probably to survive. They could also have had a system of tasks. One person hunts, the other cooks.
However, the question if the symbols and inscriptions on the different Stecaks were added later is still open. Perhaps there were good carvers back then? And the answer is; yes. Sefik Beslagic writes in his book ‘’Stecci – Kultura i Umjetnosti’’ that there were three inscription-makers and they were experts for their time. The three of them were called Master Grubac, Master Radoje and Master Semorad (The book from 1979). Apparently they made many of these symbols on the Stecaks and formed actual schools to learn others to make the Stecak symbols. If this is true, then this means that many knew how to make great symbols on the Stecaks. The questions raises: Why are most of the Stecaks without any symbols? If they formed actual schools, then I would suspect that these symbols would have appeared on most of the Stecaks, but no, many of them do not have any symbols, especially not on the older ones. Often there are perhaps 3 or 4 Stecaks that have these kind of symbols, while the other do not. In addition, only a few Stecaks of the other thousands have Cyrillic symbols on them and we need to keep in mind that many of these ‘’texts’’ that contain Cyrillic on them have not been translated yet. I will discuss this later in this article.
I continued to investigate the Stecaks and take photographs of some of them from distance, because I did not want to go deeper into the necropolis – the grass was very high and I was scared that a snake could hide behind a Stecak. We need to keep in mind that I visited the site in the morning!
I continued to the north-eastern Stecaks and the first thing I saw was the cross, standing at the entrance to the different Stecaks. Here also we have similar symbols – humans, animals, swords, trees, Bosnian Cyrillic, crosses etc. The Stecaks are flat, like ‘’chests’’ and rectangular (Source: The Mystery of Boljuni Book, 2012). These Stecaks were even more beautiful than those in Radimlja. There is no doubt in my mind that a culture were living near this place back in time and even if we are on a mountain, some kilometers from here – to the west you have ‘’Hutovo Blato’’ and ‘’Deranjsko Jezero,’’ which are Nature Parks. Here you can find many different kinds of animals, everything from birds to fish. I am sure that it was enough to make a culture there. Additionally, there has been some investigations there, but it would be a good idea to open a research group where they are going to investigate all aspects of Boljuni Stecaks – I will give some of my thoughts later in this article.
I went back to the car in happiness – this was a very interesting site! Before we went back the family which greeted us when we came, offered us homemade pomegranate-juice. It turns out that the husband and father of the family were one of those who made a book on Boljuni Stecaks, called ‘’The Mystery of Boljuni.’’ I, of course, decided to buy the book from him, which I am now using as a source for this article.
After a small break we continued to Stolac and when we came there, we sat down to drink something refreshing and to relax a bit – the sun can be really exhausting, especially in the dry lands of Herzegovina.
Boskailo Harem Necropolis
After the break, we continued to Boskailo Harem. The place is not originally called Boskailo Harem, but we are calling it that in this article. ‘’Boskailo’’ is a Muslim surname, while ‘’Harem’’ means a Muslim graveyard. The Muslim graveyard is only some meters from the Stecak. I visited the Boskailo Harem Stecaks in 2014 and only a few know about them, I heard about them from my elderly friend. Because they were very interesting, I decided to visit them again this year. It was hard to find them and again we were in the middle of nowhere. There were no signs that were pointing to them and when we asked the locals about the directions; they were quite frankly very surprised that we knew about them – you could see on the look of their faces that they were not used to ‘’tourists.’’
Nevertheless, the Boskailo Harem Stecaks is between a village called ‘’Rotimlja’’ and the Radimlja Stecaks. We finally arrived there – no one was there and it was similar as in 2014, except the vegetation at the Stecaks. It covered almost all of them! Luckily I have some pictures from 2014, to compare how it looked like.
I continued slowly into the high vegetation. There are about 25-30 Stecaks there. I did not want to get any deeper than 4-5 meters from the different Stecaks, because I did feel like no one has visited the Stecaks in ages and that the place may crawl with snakes or other insects (the place was filled with ants and small flies).
On these Stecaks also we can see symbols of figures and flowers, but most of the Stecaks do not have any symbols (the pictures from 2014 helped me a lot). To the left you have the Muslim graveyard and it seems like that some Ottomans placed their graveyards next to the Stecaks – many were probably also destroyed by them, but this one in particular is nice symbolically. No matter which religion one have – one can live in harmony with other religions. Because I could not find any records of the Boskailo Stecaks, it is difficult to say why these Stecaks are here, at this place. Perhaps there were ancient farmers who produced grapes for wine or something else? Some of these Stecaks are small, some of them are big – with the ‘’chest’’ shape, triangular and flat – just like other Stecaks that can be found. There is no doubt in my mind that they are connected with other Stecaks, because they have the same design and symbols, perhaps there was a culture living in the Rotimlja village and decided to bury the dead at that place?
It was too hot, the vegetation was too big and the flies were all over. It was time to abandon the site after I spent some minutes researching it and making a video. We returned back to Mostar.
The next week I decided to go to Mogorjelo villa, to make another video and to research some of the Stecaks that can be found some meters from it. I will not get deeper into this, but Morgorjelo was an ancient Roman Villa that was used by many different cultures. Some meters from the villa, one can find several Stecaks. It only shows that wherever there has been a settlement, there are also some kind of Stecaks.
Thoughts about the Stecaks
It was a very interesting exploration journey, back home I started researching the Stacaks even more and it only raised more questions for me. Why are there so many Stecaks in such a ‘’small’’ region? There could be a logical explanation; the Black Death (Source). The Black Death killed millions of people and I am sure that it did hit the Balkan region pretty hard when it came from Turkey. Balkan region was one of the first regions to get the Black Death and I am sure that it killed thousands in only some months. That could be one of the reasons of why there are so many Stecaks that got created in some centuries. But that raises another question; how did they get all the time to build and carry those blocks to the different locations? Even though there has been some research, it is still mysterious in my opinion. Yes, there could have been masters that built these, but over 60 000 in such a short time? There would especially have been lack of time to build all these in 4 centuries. The Black Death killed many people and for many countries in Europe it had terrible effects for the infrastructure, the governmental system etc. The original history is claiming that the Stecaks began to appear in the middle of 12th century, but is it possible that some of them are older than that if we are going to take into consideration that the Black Death had devastating effects on the region? In fact, the first Stecak was created – according to the original history – was Grdesa (Link). Like Dejan Vemic states in his MA thesis; that most of the Stecaks are recorded, but many of them have not been archaeologically excavated – how can we be so sure that the Stecaks started appearing in the 12th century?
Taking all this into consideration, the Stecaks could easily have started appearing in the 9th or 10th century. As far as I know, there are no secure records that have recorded how many people were living in the region at the time period when the Stecaks were built. And we need to remember that many of those who lived there, were not buried at the Stecaks, but somewhere else. Yes, there has been some archaeological excavation and it has revealed skeletons of humans under the Stecak, but often there is not one person buried there, but two or three (Source, from page 44). Instead of one Stecak for every person, they buried others under it too, probably friends or family. And if the situation is like this at almost all the Stecaks, then this means that there were probably over 100 000 people living in the area at that time – which makes the hypothesis that the Stecaks were built earlier than 12th century plausible.
In addition, even if there were masters making these symbols and Stecaks, it would probably have taken a longer time to make 60 000 of them, than the original history is claiming. Furthermore, what is very interesting is that almost every Stecak is built in the same way and with the same material. This means that there was a great culture living there that had communication with each other. And I believe that Sefik Beslagic is very right that the masters that made the symbols on the Stecaks, created schools, because the inscriptions and the Stecaks are too similar in the region. However, not only schools that were educating in how to make the best symbols and Stecaks, but also other things, for instance religion, philosophy, mathematics etc. Yes, it was a dark time for culture of antiquity in medieval times, but we need to remember that this region was not in the hands of Catholic or the Orthodox Church. Both of the churches were respecting the Bosnian Church and it means that it was perhaps some room for philosophy for example, plus the region was close to Greece, which is the center of antiquity. It could even have been different texts of what they thought and what they did, but it perhaps got destroyed when the Ottomans occupied the region and demanded that people followed the Islamic religion and of course, some even fled to other countries and went to be a Catholic or Orthodox. With the Ottomans, the Bosnian Kingdom also disappeared and the Stecaks were now history.
Taking into consideration that there were schools that were for instance teaching in how to make the best Stecaks, many of the Stecaks do not have any symbols and why they do not, is a tough question to answer. In Boskailo Harem, you had two or three that had some symbols and the others without. If those without symbols are older (like some historian state), then it would be a different and perhaps an older texture on the material. Perhaps those Stecaks who had symbols on them were burials for ‘’special’’ people that were important for the people in that area? It certainly needs more research.
Now, I do not want to get into the meanings of the different symbols, because I am not a historian or archaeologist yet, and I trust people like Marian Wenzel, which has made a book in 1965 called ‘’Ornamental motifs on tombstones from medieval Bosnia.” (The book by Marian Wenzel, 1965). However, we need to remember that this books was made in 1965 and even if there has been some research on the symbols, it is still not enough and the history needs to be updated because we always have new hypothesis and new discoveries. When I made the article ”The Mysterious Bosnian Obelisk,” I claimed that the spirals were perhaps some kind of galaxies. Now I can say that I disagree with myself. However, the spirals could mean something else, for instance infinity; it can mean different things. For example that the universe is infinite or that it is aimed on the humans. First you get born, then you live, then you die and after your death your will live as an ”angel” with God and you will be there for eternity. Just some thoughts.
Now, the spirals on the Stecaks are not special at all. There are many cultures in the world that are using spirals as their symbols – from California to New Zealand. Of course, we need to keep in mind that cultures have different languages and different understandings of the symbols. The meaning of the spirals on the Stecaks, can mean something different in other places. So we may never know what the spirals actually mean and we can hypothesize about it as long as we want, because that is the amazing thing with science.
In my opinion, it would be a very good idea to establish a research group that will only focus and research the different Stecaks in the region. Everything from archaeologists, geologists, anthropologists, engineers etc. They may choose 10-30 necropolises that they will study and make archaeological excavations, anthropological studies and perhaps energy investigations – no research is too much research, we will only get smarter of it. After they have researched everything, then they may make a big report so that everyone can read it. It would have been an excellent idea to understand the Stecaks in a better way, even if we know some elements about them.
Now, I end this article with humbleness. Because these Stecaks – those people who made them and those who are buried under them – needs our attention and our research, because they really deserve it after they have been forgotten and destroyed for many centuries. They are a clear example that people – with differences – can live in harmony and that two people or more can be buried under the same tombstone. The Stecaks are probably the most important artefact from medieval times for the region and the Bosnian Church that has for long time been forgotten in history.
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Djani Behram is a researcher of ancient places around the world, mostly in Bosnia and Herzegovina. He is also the ambassador of the Archaeological Park: Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation and has volunteered at the Bosnian pyramids for five years now. He also has good experiences with the Bosnian pyramids and archaeological sites in the region. In addition, he owns the biggest site about the Bosnian pyramids, which is posting news and pictures almost every day. He also owns a YouTube site, called TheBIHLover, which is posting a video almost every Wednesday.